摘 要 III
1.1Research Background 1
1.2Research Significance 2
1.3Overall Structure of the Thesis 3
2Literature Review 4
2.1The Concept of Key Terms 4
2.1.1The Definition of Culture 4
2.1.2The Definition of Chinese Culture 5
2.2The Theoretical Bases 6
2.2.1Cross-cultural Communication Theory 6
2.2.2Input Theory 7
2.3Relevant Research on Culture in Foreign Language Teaching Abroad and at Home ... 9
2.3.1Relevant Research on Culture in Foreign Language Teaching Abroad 9
2.3.2Relevant Research on Culture in Foreign Language Teaching at Home 11
3Research Design 15
3.1Research Questions 15
3.2Research Subjects 15
3.3Research Instruments 16
3.4Research Procedures and Data Collection 18
4Results and Discussion 20
4.1The Current Situation of the Integration of Chinese Culture into Senior High School
English Teaching 20
4.1.1Teachers and Students Holding a Positive Attitude towards Cultural Integration20
4.1.2The Integration of Chinese Culture Being Insufficient and the Methods Being
4.1.3The Knowledge of Chinese Culture in Textbooks Failing to Meet the Needs of
Chinese Culture Teaching and Learning 23
4.1.4The Effect of the Integration of Chinese Culture Being Unsatisfactory 24
4.2 The Influencing Factors of the Integration of Chinese Culture into English Teaching 25
4.2.1Students' and Teachers' Superficial Interpretation of the Integration of Chinese
4.2.2Students' Low English Proficiency 26
4.2.3The Shortage of Class Hours and the Great Pressure of College Admission 27
4.2.4The Insufficient Resources Related Chinese Culture Teaching and Learning .. 27
4.2.5Teachers' Inadequate Literacy of Chinese Culture 28
4.3Strategies for the Integration of Chinese Culture into Senior High School English
4.3.1Attaching Importance to the Professional Development of Teachers to Improve
their Teaching Ability of Chinese Culture 29
4.3.2Developing Various Activities and Courses to Enrich the Resources of Chinese
Culture Curriculum 29
4.3.3Strengthening the Construction of Teaching Materials to Reasonably Integrate
the Content of Chinese Culture 30
4.3.4Establishing a Cultural Evaluation System to Highlight the Backwash Effect of
4.3.5Reforming the Examination Content to Include Chinese Culture in the
Academic Proficiency Test and College Entrance Examination 32
4.3.6Cultivating Students' Cross-Cultural Communication Ability to Spread
Excellent Chinese Culture 33
5.1Major Findings 34
5.2Limitations of the Study 35
5.3Suggestions for Further Study 35
Appendix I Questionnaire for Students 40
Appendix II Questionnaire for Teachers 42
Appendix III Interview Outline 44
This part introduces the research background, research significance, and the overall structure of the thesis.
Entering the 21st century, the ties between various countries are becoming closer and closer; cultural diversity in the world is becoming more and more prominent. Exchanges between people become more frequent, cross-cultural exchanges have increased. Especially after the Belt and Road Initiative was put forward, it is inevitable to communicate with people of different cultural backgrounds. The construction of the Belt and Road can not only promote economic development, but also promote cultural exchanges among the countries along the route. It has built a new bridge for people from different cultural backgrounds to strengthen exchanges and mutual understanding. It provides a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for China's excellent culture to go to the world. In the 30th anniversary of the publication of the People's Daily, General Secretary Xi Jinping puts forward “to tell good Chinese stories, disseminate good Chinese voices, and promote foreigners' understanding of Chinese culture”.
As an important communication tool for international communication and cooperation, English is widely used in today's world. Language is not only a tool of communication, but also an important carrier of expressing thought and culture. When one wants to absorb the achievements of human civilization, learn from foreign advanced science and technology, spread Chinese excellent culture, and enhance mutual understanding and communication between China and other countries in the world, learning and using English is of great significance and role.
International cooperation and communication and cross-cultural communication are realized to a large extent through common understanding, effective language expression. China needs talents with national feelings, international ideas, global awareness and cross-cultural communication skills. The New English Curriculum Standards for Senior High Schools (2017, revised in 2020) advocates cultivating the cultural consciousness of students to enhance their national identity, strengthen their own cultural confidence, and enable them to 1
disseminate great Chinese culture. The cultivation of cultural consciousness in senior high school English subjects refers to the understanding and the recognition of the excellent cultures, both Chinese and foreign cultures, which is the cross-cultural consciousness, attitude and behavior orientation towards Chinese and Western culture of students in the global context.
Intercultural communication is a bilateral process. The dialogue between people in different cultural backgrounds requires that the learners not only understand the target language and culture, but also be familiar with their own culture and express them in the right English form. They need to actively interact with each other rather than be a passive cultural receiver. In English courses, learning the excellent culture of Chinese and foreign countries helps students broaden international vision, understand and tolerate different cultures in the process of comparison, appreciation, criticism and reflection. Senior high school years are the key period of teenagers' psychological development, and it has special significance for cultivating innovative talents and improving national quality. By integrating cultural knowledge into the process of language learning, students can form a correct understanding and attitude towards different cultures, identify and judge the quality of different cultures, extract the essence and remove the dross. Learning excellent Chinese culture can not only enhance students' national identity and cultural confidence, but improve their ability to express Chinese culture in English and to carry forward excellent traditional culture, revolutionary culture and advanced socialist culture.
In summary, the 21st century requires our students to have international vision and global consciousness. The Party and the nation have asked to implement the moral education, and train the socialist builders and successors of the comprehensive development. All of these have brought challenges to the English curriculum, and the implementation of English courses has proposed a new and higher requirement.
By means of questionnaire, the study investigates the current situation of the integration of Chinese culture into senior high school English teaching, including teachers' and students' attitude towards the integration of Chinese culture, teachers' methods of teaching Chinese
culture and the teaching effect, and the teaching materials of Chinese cultural knowledge. Based on the results of the questionnaires, interviews are conducted with students and teachers as a supplement to analyze the influencing factors. Finally, some strategies are suggested to improve the integration of Chinese culture into teaching.
This study has theoretical and practical significance for the integration of Chinese culture into English teaching in senior high schools. Theoretically, this study can enrich the research of Chinese culture in senior high school English teaching; From a practical point of view, it can provide reference for teachers' Teaching of Chinese culture, improve the current situation of integrating Chinese culture into senior high school English, and enhance students' cultural confidence and national identity, to promote the development of core literacy of English subject in senior high school.
1.3Overall Structure of the Thesis
The thesis is totally made up of the following five parts.
In the first part, the research background is introduced. Then, the research significance, and the overall structure of the thesis are stated.
The second part is the literature review, including three parts: the concept of key terms, theoretical basis and relevant literature at home and abroad.
The third part introduces the design of the research, which includes the research questions, research subjects, research instruments, research procedures and data collections.
The fourth part is the result and discussion. Data analysis of student questionnaire, teacher questionnaire was carried out, and interview results are discussed as a supplement to the study. The three research questions are answered in this part.
The last part is a summary of the thesis. Major findings, the limitations of this study and suggestions for further research are stated.
In this part, the definition of the key terms is presented, the theoretical basis of the thesis is illustrated, and the related studies on culture teaching at home and abroad are examined.
2.1The Concept of Key Terms
The key terms covered in this thesis are the definition of culture and Chinese culture.
2.1.1The Definition of Culture
The word “culture” is one of the most difficult words to understand. From the etymology and semantics, the word culture is transformed from Latin culture. It originally means that people are transforming the outside world to adapt to the process of satisfying the food and other things, the cultivation, processing and improvement of the land. The famous British anthropologist Taylor (1871) proposed his famous cultural definition: “culture or civilization, it is knowledge, faith, art, morality, law, customs, and any other combination of ability and habit that is acquired by individuals who are members of the community.” The famous American anthropologist, D. Kluckhohn (1952), thinks “Culture” means a group of people with relatively fixed lifestyles. It includes both explicit behavior and implicit communication. This culture is used in specific groups or shared in specific periods. In the book The Social Contract & Discourses, famous ideologists and educators Rousseau (2010) thought that “culture” is the traditional custom of social groups. It is the standard to evaluate whether the behavior of others meets the moral requirements, especially social public opinion. In his view, culture has the following features: first, it is deeply accepted by people; second, culture grows slowly and advanced culture gradually replaces backward culture; and third, it can maintain people's legal awareness in daily life. In the above review, it is found that in the west, the word “culture” has profound spiritual, social and political significance (Guo, 2002; Liu, 2006).
For the interpretation of culture, the earliest concept of “culture” is “cultural enlightenment”. In ancient China, culture was taught by ethics, making people “feel the love of gifts”. Since modern times, with the introduction of western social sciences, the connotation of culture has been expanding. Scholars also have different definitions of culture,
some think culture is literature, and some think culture is personality, morality and so on. After 1949, the etymology of the word “culture” comes from the process of human social history. It refers to all material culture and spiritual culture created by the people, as well as social ideology. Ci Hai holds that “culture” has three meanings. First, in a broad sense, culture refers to the total amount of material and spiritual culture created by human society in the historical process. In a narrow sense, “culture” refers to the superstructure of society, such as social ideology, political and economic system and organizational rules of government institutions. Second, it refers to general knowledge, including Chinese knowledge. Third, it refers to the general name of literary enlightenment activities carried out by ancient feudal dynasties. It should be said that the concept of the “culture” in Ci Hai represents the ideas of most Chinese scholars (Wang & Zhu, 2006).
2.1.2The Definition of Chinese Culture
In the context of Chinese language, Chinese culture is the native language culture. According to Zhao (1998), the Chinese culture is a reflection of the Chinese whole lifestyle, including “language, ideology, etiquette, way of thinking, values, ethics, lifestyle, customs, religious beliefs, literary art, scientific technology, etc.” Yang and Feng (2015) point out that Chinese culture is the general name of the material and spiritual culture created by the Chinese people, and is a culture relative to other countries. According to Gong (2018), “the Chinese culture” is “the traditional Chinese culture, which is a traditional and excellent culture created by the Chinese nation in the ancient Chinese country, which is the overall representation various ideological of cultural patterns in the history of the Chinese nation.”
Chinese scholars are different in the level and content of Chinese culture, and researchers come up with different cultural types, namely material culture, spiritual culture, institutional culture and psychological culture. Material culture refers to the material products and culture created to meet the needs of human survival and development. Spiritual culture is a kind of human unique ideology based on the production of material culture. Institutional culture is an organized normative system created by human beings for the needs of their own survival and social development. The psychological culture refers to the concept culture, which refers to the way of thinking, values, aesthetic, interest, faith, mentality, etc.
According to the concept of Chinese culture and the classification of cultural content in 5
English curriculum standards, the study mainly deals with the material and spiritual aspects of Chinese culture, the former including food, clothing, architecture, traffic and related inventions and creations; the latter including philosophy, science, education, history, literature, art, etc., as well as values, moral cultivation, aesthetic interest, social norms and customs.
2.2The Theoretical Bases
This thesis is mainly based on the following theories, cross-cultural communication theory, input theory. These two theories will be discussed in detail.
2.2.1Cross-cultural Communication Theory
The term “cross-cultural communication” first appeared in the book The Silent Language, a book by American scholar Edward-Hall (1959), which opened a new chapter in cross-cultural communication research. Since then, it has attracted the attention of scholars' research on cross-cultural communication, and many of the classics have been published. Hanvey (1979) believes that cross-cultural awareness refers to the sensitivity of participants to cultural similarities and differences in cross-cultural communication, and the self-awareness of the language used in communication. He also divided the awareness of cross-cultural communication into four stages. The first stage is the understanding of different cultures, and the cultural customs and emotions of different countries are learned. The second stage is the discovery of cultural differences, and the general response is a conflict, which is difficult to understand, known as cultural shock. The third stage is based on rational analysis. It is a stage in which one gradually understands and accepts the differences of cultural existence in different countries. The fourth stage is to stand in the other person's perspective to think about the problem, and to understand and identify with other cultures. Wen (1999) puts forward: “Only international and domestic organic combination can ensure that English becomes an effective medium of cross-cultural communication. The cross-cultural communication includes both the sensitivity of the understanding of different cultural connotations, including the tolerance of the differences between the national culture and other national cultures, and the flexibility of the communication behavior, and the treatment of the cultural conflict.” Zhang (2007) points out that in the context of English language teaching, it is necessary to avoid the narrow national view of the people, and to treat the culture of other culture with an
inclusive and open attitude, which is more consistent with the multi-directional social theme of globalization, and also should be noted that the communication is both of the two sides, and the cultural exchange is also two-way. The foreign language teaching should pay attention not only to the language teaching, but also to the culture teaching.
Therefore, cross-cultural communication refers to the communication between people with different cultural backgrounds, and the two cultures that both sides represent in the process of communication are bound to be in contact. The successful cross-cultural communication is a two-way, interactive and, on the basis of equality between the two sides. Specifically, cross-cultural communication theory has the following implications for Chinese culture teaching in senior high school English teaching. First, in English teaching, it is not advisable to teach one single culture. While students are learning a foreign culture, they should also focus on Chinese culture. In the process of teaching, teachers should pay attention to cultivating students' awareness of cultural equality. Second, in English teaching, students should be able to understand the cultural meaning of linguistics, and learn to disseminate and promote Chinese culture in English, introduce Chinese national customs, spiritual connotation and values to western countries, and learn to appreciate Chinese culture, set up a world vision and improve international understanding. At the same time, they should also recognize the diversity of world culture, respect and tolerate different cultures, observe, analyze and compare the similarities and differences between foreign languages.
The input theory is an important concept in the second language acquisition theory of American linguist Krashen in the 1980s. He believes that the input hypothesis may be an extremely important theory in second language acquisition, because it answers a key question in language learning, that is, how to acquire language, especially second language (1985). Input hypothesis theory explains Krashen's understanding of how learners accept and absorb language materials when learning a second language, and the concepts of “learning” and “acquisition” are also distinguished. He points out, the difference between learning and acquisition is conscious learning and subconscious acquisition. Learners can consciously understand grammatical rules and recite words through learning, and children will use the mother tongue unconsciously. Then, the learner must accept appropriate language input in the 7
appropriate language environment, in order to acquire the second language naturally. He further insists that just input is not enough, and learners need “comprehensible input”. “Comprehensible input” is an essential condition for second language acquisition, which means the only way that people learn a language is through the understandable language input. The learner's current language knowledge stage is defined as “i”, and the learner's next language state is defined as “i+1”. Krashen proposes the comprehensible input should follow the principle of “i+1”, namely learners should be exposed to language materials which are slightly higher than the current state of language knowledge, so as to stimulate students' learning enthusiasm. What is noteworthy is that the difficulty of language material exposed to learners should be moderate. If it is too simple, the learners will lose interest in learning. If it is too difficult, learners' enthusiasm will be hit. Only when learners are exposed to language materials belonging to the level “i+1”, they can have a positive impact on the learner's language development and help learner acquire the language.
Krashen believes that the ideal language input should have the following characteristics:
The first is comprehensibility. “ Comprehensibility” refers to an understanding of meaning of the language learned, not form. Comprehensible language input is the only way to learn a language. So, if the learner cannot understand the information they are learning, then the language cannot be learned. And the linguistic materials that the learner heard or read should be a little more difficult than learners' current language level.
The second is enough input. The amount of language input is the essential precondition and foundation of language acquisition. Language acquisition can only occur through much language input, for example, listening or reading, or both. In this process, learners will naturally absorb much meaningful language knowledge and improve the ability to use language appropriately.
The third is interestingness. When learners learn and absorb language materials, the reduction of psychological barriers can ensure a high rate of information absorption. Studies have demonstrated that anxiety, inferiority, and resistance can affect the quality of knowledge acquisition while interest can boost the effect of it. Therefore, the learning materials used must be of interest to students.
The fourth is non-grammatical programming. Krashen believes that the key for language acquisition is sufficient and comprehensible input, and learners do not need to strictly follow the order of grammar program, because language acquisition is naturally acquired through a large number of understandable inputs in a natural environment.
For the Chinese culture in English language teaching, teachers are supposed not only to provide students with sufficient comprehensible materials on Chinese culture, but also to create more authentic language communicative situations. This can promote students to absorb more comprehensible language knowledge and help students to reserve enough English expressions of Chinese culture. What's more, this can help students change the language knowledge into a part of language skills. In this way, fluent expression and effective Chinese culture output can be achieved, which will enable the students to better use the English expression and realize the dissemination of Chinese culture. The input theory provides a theoretical basis and research ideas for the thesis.
2.3Relevant Research on Culture in Foreign Language Teaching Abroad and at Home
The following part discusses relevant studies on the status of culture in language teaching at abroad and home. The relation between language teaching and culture teaching, and the significance of the native culture in foreign language teaching are stated. These related researches lay the foundation for this thesis.
2.3.1Relevant Research on Culture in Foreign Language Teaching Abroad
In the earliest period, language teaching focused on language knowledge, and did not cover any cultural knowledge contained in the language. After the 1960s, due to the progress of teaching methods and the development of linguistic research, foreign scholars began to pay attention to the cultural part of language teaching. In the study of the relationship between culture and language teaching, many language researchers propose that language and culture should not be separated, and cultural content should be integrated into language teaching, because the two promote each other. Politzer (1959) believes that language teaching and culture teaching are synchronous. Otherwise, language is just a symbol. Lado (1964) points out that language and culture are inseparable. A teacher cannot teach a language well if he/she
does not know the cultural background. If a student does not understand the cultural connotation of the language, he/she cannot really master the language. Hymes (1971) believes that a person's potential language competence includes language knowledge and the ability to use language, and one of the main goals of foreign language teaching is to cultivate students' qualities or abilities needed for successful cross-cultural communication. During this period, although scholars began to realize the inseparable relationship between culture and language and believe that language is used to express cultural content, there is no research on what cultural content should be taught.
At the end of the 20th century, linguists and scholars began to focus on the content of culture teaching, especially how to deal with the native culture. Byram (1989) indicates that cultural learning and language learning are equally important. Kramsch (1993) states that in the process of foreign language teaching, it should be noted that the target language culture is as important as the native culture. He argues that language learning not only means mastering a tool for communication, but also means using language to convey culture; culture teaching is feasible in foreign language teaching, learners should engage in cross-cultural communication, and integrating the culture into English teaching can help learners improve their language awareness. Later, Kramsch (2000) gives a more detailed explanation in his book Language and Culture, stating that learners should not only understand the culture of their mother tongue, but also learn how to communicate with people of different cultural backgrounds, which is an important part of cultural communication. This fully shows that a good language learner should combine the culture with language to lay a solid foundation for cultural interaction. Samovar (2000), an American scholar, also emphasizes that only by mastering language and culture can we better understand language and promote the development of transnational culture. Brown (2002) points out that English does not represent the culture of English-speaking countries. Countries are different in culture and values. Learners should respect different values and views. Margana (2009) believes that the native culture should be included in foreign language teaching, which is conducive to improving learners' language level and their understanding of both the native culture and target language culture. With the deepening of cultural research, scholars believe that cultural content includes target language culture and native culture. Scholars hold that cultural background will help to
better understand language and culture, and emphasize the important role of foreign language in cross-cultural communication. However, the methods of culture teaching are not mentioned.
To sum up, in the past decades, languages and cultures have developed from the separation from each other to the integration with each other, and the promotion to each other, from the focus on language skills to culture in foreign language teaching. Cultural teaching has developed from the culture of target language to the culture of mother tongue. The research of foreign scholars has made contributions to the integration of mother tongue culture teaching into foreign language teaching and laid a foundation for this research.
2.3.2Relevant Research on Culture in Foreign Language Teaching at Home
The research on culture in foreign language teaching in China is relatively late. After the reform and opening up, many English teachers went abroad to study and introduced the communicative method and foreign textbooks, which promoted the development of cultural teaching in China. At the same time, Chinese scholars also began to explore cultural elements in English language teaching. In terms of the necessity of cultural content, Shu (1996) and Liu (2003) point out that teachers must integrate cultural teaching into foreign language teaching, because cultural teaching is an essential part of foreign language. Cultural teaching promotes the development of English language teaching, and the two complement each other. Song (2008) also states that foreign language teaching and intercultural teaching should be combined, in order to cultivate students' intercultural communication ability. Although it starts late, the research on culture teaching has developed rapidly. Chinese scholars have explained the importance and objectives of culture teaching.
Hu and Gao (1997) believe that cultural teaching should include five aspects, namely verbal communication, non-verbal communication, communication custom, social structure, interpersonal relationship and sense of values. Zhuang and Yang (2006) pointed out that non-verbal communication, an important part of intercultural communication, should be introduced into foreign language teaching. In order to improve the ability of nonverbal communication, firstly, one must have cross-cultural awareness, that is, have enough sensitivity and awareness of nonverbal behaviors in culture; secondly, it is necessary to understand various non-verbal knowledge and non-verbal communication skills through 11
systematic learning; and finally, the knowledge is applied to practical communication to improve cross-cultural nonverbal communication ability in practice. Scholars generally divide the content of culture into verbal cultural behavior and nonverbal cultural behavior. The classification of culture is relatively simple.
In terms of the research on cultural teaching principles, Shu and Zhuang (1996) believe that at the basic level of English language teaching, the content of cultural teaching should follow the principles of practicality, stage and suitability. Liu (2003) points out the principle: cultural teaching should reflect universality, particularity and the dynamic characteristics of culture; cultural teaching should not be abandoned to the method and it is necessary to evaluate cultural learning. Zhang (2007) puts forward several principles of cultural, such as contrast principle, relevance principle, progressive principle, system principle, practical principle and interesting principle. Chen (2012) puts forward the principles of culture teaching like cognition, hierarchy, comparison, moderation, communication, flexibility and practicability. The principles of culture put forward by most scholars are relatively abstract and fail to provide specific guidance for culture teaching.
In terms of the research on cultural teaching methods, Shu and Zhuang (1996) propose annotation method, fusion method, practice method, comparative method and special description. Hu and Gao (1997) believe that teaching methods should be considered from the perspective of syllabus development, including curriculum setting, textbook compilation and selection, teaching methods and skills. Then, they propose common cultural teaching methods, including cultural infiltration, cultural narrative, literary analysis and cultural packaging, cultural fragments and cultural clusters. Zhang (2007) discusses from the perspective of combining cultural teaching with language teaching and finds that vocabulary teaching, reading teaching, listening and speaking teaching, writing teaching and cultural teaching should be combined respectively. In addition, cultural teaching can be carried out through literary works. Chen (2018) believes that cross-cultural education should be practiced in the direction of national quality construction, with emphasis on school education as the basis and social education as the supplement. Scholars have explored various methods of culture teaching from different angles, but offered little on how to integrate culture teaching into foreign language teaching.
In the early cultural teaching, many scholars interpreted “culture” as the target language culture, ignoring the mother culture. Only a few scholars pointed out the relationship between mother culture and foreign language. It is not until the 1990s, the integration of the native culture into English teaching has attracted more and more scholars' attention. Shu and Zhuang (1996) from the perspective of language learning theory deeply study the influence of the native culture on language learning and the importance of culture in language teaching. Zhang and Ma (2004) propose that target language culture should be realized. Wu (2019) proposes that the differences between cultures must be seen in English teaching and should be viewed from different comparative perspectives. In culture teaching, most teachers use the method of comparing the similarities and differences to analyze the characteristics of different cultures. The content of culture teaching has developed from paying attention to the target language culture to the native culture, that is, Chinese culture. Chinese culture plays an increasingly important role in foreign language teaching.
Some educators have recognized the nature of the problem and conducted in-depth analysis and investigation on the basis of practice. Yang (2008) proposes three ways to introduce Chinese culture into English teaching: extension of teaching content; extra-curricular investigation and research; and course practice. Yao (2008) believes that English teaching materials should combine Chinese culture and Western culture in a scientific way. Lan (2009) believes that Chinese culture should be included in English textbooks. Ren (2010) criticizes the lack of Chinese culture in middle school English textbooks. Wang (2020) says that the content of Chinese culture in senior high school English textbooks covers a narrow range of fields, the discussion of culture is relatively simple, and the culture content organization is not systematic enough. Guo (2020) thinks that it is the cultural mission of English textbooks to cultivate and develop students' cross-cultural ability of appreciating the world's multiculturalism and telling Chinese stories. More and more scholars begin to study culture teaching from the perspective of classroom teaching and textbooks. It is conducive to the implementation of culture teaching.
To sum up, most scholars start from the perspective of cross-cultural communication study the importance of culture teaching, teaching principles and methods of culture teaching. Most of them focus on theoretical research. The importance of the integration of the native 13
culture into foreign language teaching is the latest research trend. However, there are few researches on the integration of Chinese culture into English teaching, especially in senior high school English teaching.
This part introduces the research questions, research subjects, research methods, and the research procedures and data collection.
As an integral part of senior high school English subjects, Chinese cultural content is of great significance in cultivating students' cultural awareness and improving Chinese cultural expression ability, and is also an important foundation for students to conduct bilateral cross-cultural communication. The aim of the thesis is to investigate the current situation of the integration of Chinese culture into English teaching in senior high schools, including the attitude of students and teachers towards the integration of Chinese culture, the process and methods of Chinese culture teaching, the Chinese culture knowledge in textbook, and the effect of Chinese culture teaching. The influencing factors of the integration of Chinese culture into English teaching is also one of the important concerns of the thesis, and corresponding strategies for the integration of Chinese culture into senior high school English teaching will be put forward according to the results of the investigation. The following are the key questions to be addressed:
1.What is the current situation of the integration of Chinese culture into senior high school English teaching?
2.What are the factors that influence the integration of Chinese culture in senior high school English teaching?
3.What strategies can improve the integration of Chinese culture into senior high school English teaching?
The research was conducted in Zhangjiakou No. 1 Senior Middle School, a provincial-level key senior high school. Both students and teachers took part in the questionnaire survey. One group of research subjects are students randomly selected from two parallel classes of each grade with different English teachers. A total of 273 students from 6 classes participated in the research. The other group of research subjects consists of 47 15
English teachers who teach Grade One to Grade Three of Zhangjiakou No. 1 Senior Middle School. A total of 8 students participated in the interview, randomly selected from each class participating in the questionnaire survey; English teachers participating in the interview were randomly selected from three grades, and a total of 9 teachers participated in the interview.
The instruments used in the research are questionnaire and interview, both of which are conducted with students and teachers. The questionnaires are intended to figure out the current situation of the integration of Chinese culture into English teaching and the interviews serve as a supplement to analyze the influencing factors and to make the result more objective.
The questionnaires are used to investigate the current situation of the integration of Chinese culture into senior high school English teaching. They are designed according to the questionnaire used in Chu's (2015) paper on Chinese culture investigation and analysis in senior high school English teaching and Xie's (2020) paper of a survey on the effect and influencing factors of integrating Chinese culture into senior high school English teaching. During the design of the questionnaires, the questions suitable for this study are added and the questions irrelevant to this study have been deleted. There are the student questionnaire and the teacher questionnaire. The student questionnaire is set up from three dimensions: the emotional attitude towards the integration of Chinese culture; evaluation the teaching process and methods of Chinese cultural integration; the evaluation of Chinese cultural knowledge in textbook. The teacher questionnaire also contains the three dimensions, namely, the emotional attitude towards the integration of Chinese culture, the evaluation of Chinese cultural knowledge in textbook, and the teaching effect of Chinese culture. The questionnaires are designed in the form of Likert Scale, ranging from 1 to 5, including 1=strongly agree, 2=agree, 3=uncertain, 4=disagree, and 5=strongly disagree.
Before the formal distribution of questionnaires, a pilot test has been conducted among 70 students and 35 teachers from other schools. In the pilot test, 70 questionnaires have been distributed to students, and 70 have been recovered, obtaining 65 valid samples; and 35
questionnaires have been collected from teachers, obtaining 32 valid samples. The standard of valid sample is: first, the answer time is more than 2 minutes; second, the answer cannot be all the same. SPSS 26.0 statistical software is used to inspect the reliability and validity of the 65 student questionnaires and the 32 teacher questionnaires. The following is reliability test. Cronbach Alpha of the whole student questionnaire is .865 (> 0.7), and that of the teacher
questionnaire is .881 (> 0.7), which means that both versions of the questionnaire are reliable, can be used for formal test. The reliability data is shown in Table 3.1 and Table 3.2.
Table 3.1 Reliability Analysis of the Student Questionnaire
Cronbach's Alpha Number of Items
Table 3.2 Reliability Analysis of the Teacher Questionnaire
Cronbach's Alpha Number of Items
Meanwhile, the validity analysis tested by KMO and Bartlett of student questionnaire is .705 (0.6), the validity analysis tested by KMO and Bartlett of teacher questionnaire is .736 (0.6), which means a good validity. Validity data is shown in Table 3.3 and Table 3.4.
Table 3.3 Validity Analysis of the Student Questionnaire
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy .705
Approx. Chi-Square 102.449
Bartlett's Test of
Table 3.4 Validity Analysis of the Teacher Questionnaire
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy .736
Approx. Chi-Square 471.986
Bartlett's Test of
In order to make up for the shortcomings of the questionnaire survey, supplement the
data collected by the questionnaires to make the research more authentic and reliable. The interviews are carried out with students and teachers to further find out the influencing factors of the integration of Chinese culture. The interviews mainly focus on teachers' and students' views on the Chinese culture teaching, reasons and difficulties that influence the integration of Chinese culture, as well as teachers' and students' suggestions on Chinese culture teaching.
3.4Research Procedures and Data Collection
The pilot test of the questionnaire was done in Zhangjiakou No. 4 High School at the end of September 2021. After all the questionnaires were collected, SPSS 26.0 statistical software is used to test the reliability and validity of the questionnaire sample. According to the test results, inappropriate questions were eliminated and re-sorted to get the questionnaire that can be formally investigated.
The formal investigation and research were all carried out in Zhangjiakou No. 1 Senior Middle School. A formal questionnaire was done in early October 2021. Before answering the questionnaire, the teacher stressed that the students should take it seriously. The teacher questionnaire was done partially online and partially offline, and there was no venue or time limit. All questionnaires having being collected, the data of valid questionnaires were sorted and analyzed.
In early November 2021, an interview outline was prepared based on the questionnaire survey results and the research questions. 1 to 2 students were randomly selected from each class, and a total of eight students participated in the student interview. From grade one to grade three, 1 to 3 teachers were randomly selected from each grade, and a total of 9 teachers participated in teacher interview. Before the formal interview, the researcher has first made an appointment with the interviewee for the specific time and place of the interview, and negotiated and adjusted the interview according to the actual needs to make sure that the interview activities will not occupy the students' learning time and the teachers' teaching time. Secondly, in order to make the respondents less nervous and willing to cooperate, the researcher has told them in advance that the result acquired during the interview is for research reference only, and their personal information will not be disclosed. Thirdly, in order to ensure the effect of the interview, the researcher has controlled the time of each interview
to about 20 minutes. Finally, after obtaining the consent of students and teachers, the researcher records the interview content through mobile phone recording throughout the whole process. After the interview, transcribed and sorted the recorded content in time for avoid the omission of details of the interview information.
4Results and Discussion
This part answers the three research questions according to the results of questionnaire and interview.
4.1The Current Situation of the Integration of Chinese Culture into Senior High School English Teaching
Teaching refers to the learning of students and the teaching of teachers. It is more objective to analyze the current situation of the integration of Chinese culture into senior high school English teaching from the point of view of students and teachers.
4.1.1Teachers and Students Holding a Positive Attitude towards Cultural Integration
Five questions in the questionnaire for students are about the students' attitude towards the integration of Chinese culture.
Table 4.1 Students' Attitude towards Cultural Integration
agree Agree Not certain Disagree Strongly disagree
1.You are interested in describing Chinese culture in English. 41% 34% 15% 7% 3%
2. It is necessary to integrate Chinese culture into your English learning. 39% 29% 13% 11% 8%
3.It is necessary to spread Chinese excellent culture. 36% 31% 17% 10% 6%
4.You agree that it is only necessary to learn Western 6% 17% 25% 33% 19%
culture, not Chinese culture. 5.You think learning Chinese excellent culture is helpful for learning English. 29% 37% 18% 10% 6%
The results show that most students are interested in expressing Chinese culture in
English and have a positive attitude; two thirds of the students think it is necessary to integrate Chinese culture into English learning; nearly 70% of the students think they should spread excellent Chinese culture, which shows that most students have a certain cross-cultural awareness; more than half of the students do not agree to study only western culture,
believing that Chinese culture is indispensable; 66% of students believe that learning Chinese culture is helpful to English learning, but a small number of students are not aware of the role of culture in promoting language learning. According to the above analysis, students are optimistic about cultural integration, interested in Chinese culture, willing to learn Chinese culture, and have a positive awareness of cross-cultural communication. They believe that Chinese culture is as important as western culture. Good awareness and active attitude will stimulate further cultural learning.
The attitude of teachers towards the integration of Chinese culture covers four questions, including the understanding of the objective required in the English curriculum standard of cultivating students' cultural awareness, the necessity of cultural integration, the attitude of cultivating the capability of students to express Chinese culture in English, and the cultivation of students' awareness of spreading Chinese culture.
Table 4.2 Teachers' Attitude towards Cultural Integration
Questions Strongly agree Agree Not certain Disagree Strongly disagree
1.You are very familiar with cultural awareness goals.
2.It is essential to 17% 21% 4% 31% 27%
integrate Chinese culture into English teaching.
3. It is essential to cultivate 27% 46% 0% 18% 9%
students' capability of expressing Chinese culture in English.
4. It is essential to raise 19% 33% 6% 27% 15%
students' awareness of spreading excellent Chinese culture. 26% 40% 1% 18% 15%
Table 4.2 shows that 38% of the teachers think that they have a good understanding of the objective of cultivating students' cultural consciousness, while 58% of them think that they do not have a clear cognition of the objective and they need to study the English curriculum standards carefully; 70% of the teachers consider it is essential to integrate Chinese culture into the English teaching process; more than half of the teachers think it is essential to raise students' ability to express Chinese culture in English; and most of the
teachers think it is necessary to cultivate students' awareness of spreading Chinese excellent culture. It can be seen from the above data analysis that teachers have a vague understanding of the objective of cultivating students' cultural awareness, but they still believe that Chinese culture should be integrated into English classes, and that students should be trained to express Chinese culture in English, and have the awareness of spreading Chinese culture. Teachers have a positive attitude towards the integration of Chinese culture, but they should carefully study the English curriculum standards to have a deeper understanding of the curriculum standards.
4.1.2The Integration of Chinese Culture Being Insufficient and the Methods Being Single
Table 4.3 Evaluation of the Integration of Chinese Culture into Teaching
Questions Always Often Sometimes Occasionally Never
6.The teacher took the initiative to
increase the knowledge about Chinese 3% 15% 35% 43% 4%
7.The teacher compares western
culture with Chinese culture. 5% 19% 36% 29% 11%
8.You will have the opportunity express Chinese culture in English. to 3% 16% 31% 40% 10%
9. Chinese culture is included in homework. the 1% 3% 17% 33% 46%
10. Chinese culture is involved in the 3% 10% 29% 46% 12%
Questions 6 to 10 are about students' evaluation of teachers' integration of Chinese culture into the teaching process. The result shows that teachers to some extent supplement relevant knowledge of Chinese culture, and compare different cultures in class; students do not often have the chance to communicate Chinese culture in English when learning Chinese culture; nearly half of the students hold that Chinese culture is never involved in English homework; and most of them think that occasionally there are questions about Chinese culture in the exams. The above analysis reveals that Chinese culture is insufficiently involved in classroom teaching, homework and exams.
Table 4.4 Evaluation of Teaching Methods
Questions Options Percentage
Providing the cultural background according to the teaching material Designing relevant cultural situations and carrying out communicative activities Making comparisons between cultures, exploring cultural connotation and values Creating a cultural environment for Chinese culture teaching
Giving assignments or homework about Chinese culture
Encouraging students to take part in activities related to Chinese culture
Recommending that students read books and newspapers that introduce Chinese culture in English
Learning about Chinese culture through Internet, media, TV and radio
The above result shows that no matter whether it is in-class teaching or after- class instruction, the methods the teacher uses to integrate or highlight Chinese culture are comparatively single.
4.1.3The Knowledge of Chinese Culture in Textbooks Failing to Meet the Needs of
Chinese Culture Teaching and Learning
According to Krashen's input theory, adequate comprehensible input is an important condition for language learning. It is essential to analyze the content of Chinese culture in textbooks. Four questions are set to explore the content of Chinese culture in the textbook, including how the knowledge of Chinese culture is arranged in the textbook, whether the proportion is reasonable, whether the content in the textbook can meet the learning needs, and whether the extracurricular reading materials about Chinese culture are accessible.
Table 4.5 Evaluation of Teaching Materials by Students
13.There is much knowledge about Chinese culture in the textbooks.
14.In the textbook, the proportion of Chinese and Western culture is very reasonable.
15.The materials about Chinese culture are very satisfying for
16.The extracurricular reading
materials about Chinese culture are accessible. 12% 18% 14% 33% 25%
Table 4.6 Evaluation of Teaching Materials by Teachers
Questions Strongly agree Agree Not certain Disagree Strongly disagree
5.There is much knowledge about Chinese culture in the textbooks. 23% 35% 19% 14% 9%
6.In the textbook, the proportion of Chinese and Western culture is very reasonable. 12% 16% 21% 37% 14%
7.The materials about Chinese culture are very satisfying for teaching needs. 9% 18% 11% 39% 23%
8.The teaching resources about Chinese culture are accessible. 8% 14% 16% 28% 34%
Similar questions are raised to the students and teachers, the similar answers are obtained.
It can be seen from the table 4.5 and Table 4.6 that half of the students and teachers think that the textbooks contain knowledge of Chinese cultural; about a quarter of them agree that there is satisfactory amount Chinese culture in the textbooks, while quite a lot of them cannot tell whether the proportion is reasonable, which shows that they cannot judge how much knowledge of Chinese culture should be covered in the textbooks; most of the students and teachers think that the knowledge of Chinese culture in the textbooks still cannot meet their learning and teaching needs; and more than half of students believe that it is not easy to obtain English reading materials on Chinese culture. This does not provide convenience conditions for students to learn Chinese culture independently after class. More than half of the teachers also find it difficult to acquire teaching resources about Chinese culture. In terms of teaching materials, teachers and students practically hold the same opinion.
4.1.4The Effect of the Integration of Chinese Culture Being Unsatisfactory
The effect of the integration of Chinese culture is mainly explored in the questionnaire for teachers. The relevant questions include students' ability to describe Chinese culture in English, their awareness of cross-cultural communication and values, the positive effects of the integration of Chinese culture, and the degree of their satisfaction with the integration of Chinese culture.
Table 4.7 The Effect of the Integration of Chinese Culture
Questions Strongly agree Agree Not certain Disagree Strongly disagree
9.Students have a very rich knowledge of Chinese culture. 14% 26% 3% 34% 23%
10.Students have good ability to express Chinese culture in English. 7% 13% 17% 38% 25%
11.Students have equal and two-way intercultural communication 23% 31% 8% 21% 17%
12.The integration of Chinese culture has a very positive impact on 19% 22% 21% 27% 11%
13.You are very satisfied with the effect of integrating Chinese culture into the teaching. 14% 23% 10% 35% 18%
The result shows that most teachers think that students' knowledge of Chinese culture is not enough, and it is difficult for them to describe Chinese culture in English; the students do have a certain awareness of cross-cultural communication and values; the integration of Chinese culture does have some positive effects on students' learning but not very prominent; and most of the teachers are not quite satisfied with the effect of the integration of Chinese culture.
4.2The Influencing Factors of the Integration of Chinese Culture into English Teaching
The influencing factors are analyzed based on the results of the interviews with teachers and students. There are four questions in the students' interview outline, Ss1-8 respectively representing 8 interviewed students. There are four questions in the teacher interview outline. The teachers who participated in the interview were randomly selected from Grade One to Grade Three, with Ts1-9 representing 9 teachers respectively.
4.2.1Students' and Teachers' Superficial Interpretation of the Integration of Chinese Culture
The result of the questionnaire reveals students are more interested in and support the integration of Chinese culture into English teaching. However, when facing the problem of why they should learn Chinese culture in English teaching, their cognition is relatively simple.
S1 says studying Chinese culture helps students gain a thorough comprehension of the native Culture of China. So far, China has a lot of excellent culture for the young generation to learn, and they have the responsibility to disseminate the excellent Chinese culture. S2, S4 and S5 say that learning Chinese culture is just learning the translation of Chinese. S4, S6 and S7 think they learn Chinese culture just because they want to get a high score in exams containing questions about Chinese culture.
T1 and T5 believe that they teach Chinese culture because it is requirement of English curriculum standard. T2, T4 and T7 think that China, as a big country with a long history, is necessary to integrate cultural knowledge in students and make them have cultural confidence. Most students nowadays prefer Japanese, Korean, European and American cultures. According to T3 and T6, cultural awareness is one of the core qualities that need to be cultivated in high school English subjects. To cultivate students' cultural consciousness, the teaching of Chinese culture is necessary. The above opinions show the superficial understanding of the teachers and students of the significance of the integration of Chinese culture into senior high school English teaching.
The fact is that the integration of Chinese culture into senior high school English teaching can not only help students understand the content expressed by foreigners, but also improve students' ability to spread Chinese excellent culture. Teaching Chinese culture does not simply mean to teach some cultural knowledge, or the translation of some words about Chinese culture, but more importantly, to cultivate students correct cultural discrimination ability, to urge them to learn and absorb excellent cultural essence, and establish a correct attitude towards Chinese and Western culture.
4.2.2Students' Low English Proficiency
When asked about their ability to express Chinese culture in English, the students were not satisfied with their performance. S1 and S3 say that they know the names and customs of some traditional Chinese festivals, but it is difficult to express them in complete sentences. S2 says that when communicating with others in English, he always gets nervous and cannot express himself correctly. S4 and S7 think that they have difficulty learning English, let alone the knowledge of Chinese culture. S5 says that her oral English is not good, and she is afraid of making mistakes and unwilling to express herself. Teachers also say that students' own
English proficiency has an impact on the learning of Chinese culture.
According to T1, T5 and T7, students have different levels. Some students will quickly accept and absorb the same knowledge of Chinese culture, while others will find it difficult to learn. Therefore, the integration of Chinese culture into teaching should take into account the accept level and proficiency of students.
4.2.3The Shortage of Class Hours and the Great Pressure of College Admission
S1 and S6 show that the biggest difficulty in learning Chinese culture is the heavy learning pressure. They have too much homework every day, so they have no time to attention Chinese culture. S2 and S3 say that Chinese culture is seldom touched in class, and most of the time is spent on language knowledge. Culture is taught only in open classes, because the interesting content can activate the classroom atmosphere. S5 and S7 believe that they have learned the expressions of Chinese culture, but have no chance to use them in daily life and will soon forget them.
T7 and T8 think it is hard to cover both language knowledge and cultural knowledge in the short 40 minutes. Therefore, the two teachers believe that time and teaching tasks are the pressures they face in the teaching of Chinese culture. T9 believes that the pressure of examination is the difficulty faced by Chinese culture teaching. In the exam, there is little about Chinese culture, and even though there is some, it is too general and superficial. The teaching of Chinese culture is easily neglected by teachers. For some reasons, Chinese culture has been put in an unimportant position. The insufficient attention of Chinese culture of teachers and students, neglect of Chinese culture knowledge in English teaching, is one of the reasons why students are not able to express Chinese culture in English.
4.2.4The Insufficient Resources Related Chinese Culture Teaching and Learning
S3 believes that the obstacle to learning Chinese culture is lack of related learning materials, there is not so much knowledge of Chinese culture in their English textbooks. S6 suggests the school establish cultural clubs in which students who like Chinese culture can communicate with each other, study with their peers and exchange learning resources.
When dealing with the content of Chinese culture, T1 and T2 say that they will find some videos about Chinese culture on the Internet, and introduce these into the classroom to attract students' interest, so that the teaching effect will be better. However, the difficulty is 27
that there are few videos that can correspond with Chinese cultural knowledge and are suitable for teaching. T7 says she will combine her own cultural experience with Chinese cultural content and try to extend the knowledge of Chinese culture and make the class interesting. T1 and T4 believe that explore more suitable curriculum resources about Chinese culture is conducive to the integration of Chinese culture into English teaching. After all, the more course resources there are, the more Chinese content teachers can choose from. T3, T5 and T6 hope to appropriately raise the proportion of Chinese culture in their textbooks, particularly in the exercises part for students.
4.2.5Teachers' Inadequate Literacy of Chinese Culture
To teach students Chinese cultural knowledge and cultivate students' cultural consciousness, teachers should have certain Chinese cultural knowledge and cultural literacy. T3 and T2 say that they have a superficial understanding of Chinese culture, and it is difficult to give in-depth cultural explanations to students. T1 and T5 say that their knowledge of Chinese culture is only limited to some common sense, and cannot attract students' learning interest. T7 say that Chinese culture is wide range, and what she knows is only a drop in the bucket. Facing students' questions about Chinese culture, she feels very embarrassed because she cannot give a satisfactory answer. When it comes to the integration of Chinese culture into English classroom teaching, it will inevitably involve the English expression of Chinese culture. T4 says the lack of authoritative translations for some words with Chinese characteristics, it is difficult to guarantee the accuracy of the class content.
In the interview, it is found that while English teachers have rich professional English language knowledge and language ability, their knowledge and literacy of Chinese culture is inadequate. Teachers' lack of Chinese culture knowledge will certainly affect the quality of Chinese culture integration and hinder the teaching progress of Chinese culture. It can be seen that teachers' inadequate cultural knowledge and literacy is a key and important factor affecting the integration of Chinese culture into English teaching.
4.3Strategies for the Integration of Chinese Culture into Senior High School English Teaching
The purpose of research on the current situation and influencing factors of the integration
of Chinese culture into senior high school English teaching is expect Chinese culture better integrate into English teaching. Based on the research results, in view of the opinions and suggestions of students and teachers, some strategies are put forward for the integration of Chinese culture into senior high school English teaching.
4.3.1 Attaching Importance to the Professional Development of Teachers to Improve their Teaching Ability of Chinese Culture
In the teaching process, teachers play a leading role. The quality of teachers' teaching is related to students' learning effect as well as their physical and mental development. According to the English curriculum standards, teachers should strive to constantly strengthen their professional knowledge and Chinese cultural literacy. In the face of Chinese culture, teachers should first study seriously and clarify the teaching direction. Teachers should grasp the curriculum objectives, read the textbooks deeply, dig out the educational value of the curriculum, objectively analyze the learning situation, and clarify the key points and difficulties in teaching. English teachers are supposed to enrich the knowledge of Chinese and foreign cultures and broaden the international vision. When facing unfamiliar Chinese culture, teachers should try their best to learn Chinese culture, read professional literature, and participate in teaching seminars and exchanges.
In the teaching of Chinese culture, teacher should actively lesson preparation, creative use of teaching means and methods, rational use of modern educational technology, effective organization and implementation of cultural teaching are expected. Schools should actively encourage and reasonably arrange teachers' further education activities, and provide all-round support for teachers to participate in seminars, lectures and trainings related to curriculum standards. It is advisable to organize teachers to carry out school-based research based on Chinese culture, solve practical problems in teaching, and share teaching experience. Only by improving their own cultural literacy and teaching ability, can they better carry out teaching activities and impart Chinese cultural knowledge to students.
4.3.2 Developing Various Activities and Courses to Enrich the Resources of Chinese Culture Curriculum
Teachers mention that the tight teaching time and heavy teaching tasks in English classes are part of the factors affecting the integration of Chinese culture. According to the specific 29
situation, schools can make full use of their spare time to regularly organize activities such as Chinese culture English broadcast, English play show, English corner, special report meetings and so on. Students can improve their cross-cultural ability by inviting foreigners to introduce the customs and culture of their own country, and introducing Chinese customs and culture to the foreigners in English. There are various forms to carry out Chinese culture learning activities, for example, English reading exchange meetings, English learning columns, and Chinese culture learning clubs, etc., which can enrich students' extracurricular life, and train students' independent learning ability.
Besides, schools can make full use of resources inside and outside. According to the suggested of elective courses by the English curriculum standards, it is advisable to encourage qualified English teachers with knowledge of Chinese culture and teaching ability to develop school-based curriculum. For example, schools can make use of the local characteristic culture to carry out school-based courses. Local education administrative departments and schools should pay attention to the auxiliary role of modern information technology in teaching, increase investment in information management and the development of network resources, including various suitable English learning APPs, websites, and other resources related to Chinese culture. Schools can set up resource database to promote resource sharing between schools.
4.3.3Strengthening the Construction of Teaching Materials to Reasonably Integrate the Content of Chinese Culture
The textbook is important material for students to learn and teachers to teach. In the questionnaire survey, both students and teachers think that the content of Chinese culture in the textbook cannot meet the needs of learning and teaching. Hu (2020) thinks that the types of Chinese culture in textbooks are diverse but unevenly distributed, focusing on the input of Chinese cultural rather than the output. The difficulty level of Chinese culture in textbooks is suitable for students, but in terms of the selection and design of Chinese culture content, its adaptability and innovation need to be improved. The textbooks can be theme-driven and the content of Chinese culture can be integrated into each section of the textbooks. The teaching material should be designed to reflect the communicative function of the language, cultivate students' ability to understand the speaker's intention, express their views and communicate
with others in English, rather than simply focus on the language forms. This will help students turn the knowledge learned in books into their own ability.
English teaching can not only enable students to acquire foreign language knowledge, but also enable them to learn interdisciplinary knowledge and life experience. The content of Chinese culture in textbooks should be contemporary and interesting. Teachers' books, exercise books, audio and video materials and other teaching materials should be complete. The contents and forms of teaching materials are as flexible as possible to meet the teaching and learning needs. The basic concepts and goals of English courses should be put into practice to meet the diversified development of students.
4.3.4Establishing a Cultural Evaluation System to Highlight the Backwash Effect of Evaluation
Teaching evaluation is the feedback of a certain teaching stage. It appraises the advantages and disadvantages of the current teaching stage, and proper and instant evaluation can promote teaching. Appropriately increasing the evaluation of the learning effect of Chinese culture is conducive to the development and growth of students. The Chinese culture evaluation includes teachers' evaluation of students' learning process and effect of Chinese culture, as well as teachers' evaluation and reflection of their own teaching may involve the evaluation of teaching design, teaching method, teaching process and teaching effect. In teaching evaluation, teachers should not only focus on students' scores, but also comprehensively evaluate students' performance, achievements and key ability development in the process of learning Chinese culture. From the time dimension, students' learning activities can be divided into three stages: pre-activity, activity and post-activity. The corresponding evaluation includes diagnostic evaluation, procedural evaluation and summative evaluation, and different evaluation has different feedback functions. Diagnostic assessment can help teachers understand students' learning needs. Process evaluation monitors and diagnoses learning activities according to the objectives and requirements of activities, and adjusts and promotes activities accordingly. It can give feedback to teachers' teaching behavior and help teachers to correct their own teaching behavior. After the phased teaching, there is a final evaluation, such as unit test, mid-term exam and final exam, which aims to test the phased achievements of learning and teaching and provide the guidance of the 31
next stage of learning and teaching.
In the process of evaluation, teachers should maintain the fairness of evaluation and protect students' learning enthusiasm. The evaluation should mainly encourage and suggest, and avoid discourage students' enthusiasm and initiative. Teachers should guide students to do more longitudinal comparison, starting from each student's own level to analyze their progress. Teachers should remember that the purpose of evaluation, and avoid the tendency of teaching for the sake of examination. Evaluation is to serve teaching, feedback on teaching and promote teaching.
4.3.5Reforming the Examination Content to Include Chinese Culture in the Academic Proficiency Test and College Entrance Examination
Academic level refers to the scholastic attainment of students after completing the courses of the subject. The academic level standard takes the discipline core accomplishment and its performance standards as the main dimension. Academic level I is the performance standards achieved by a student after completing the required courses, in which there are clear requirements for cultural content. For example, students are required to introduce Chinese and foreign traditions and cultural backgrounds, such as major Chinese and foreign festivals, master the general idea of daily life discourse, obtain the main information, ideological and cultural background through reading, identify emotions, attitudes, values and socio-cultural phenomena, and introduce festivals and excellent Chinese traditional culture in written form.
The requirement of senior high school English academic level is not only the goal of teachers' daily teaching work, but also the main basis for stage evaluation, academic proficiency test and college entrance examination. Increasing the content of Chinese culture in the examination can not only arouse teachers' attention to Chinese culture, but also test students' cultural consciousness directly or indirectly and improve students' ability to compare and distinguish excellent culture from dross culture and spread excellent Chinese culture. The listening part can be designed to train students' ability to understand the cultural meaning expressed by changes of stress and intonation . In the reading part, passages containing cultural content can provide students with knowledge about different cultures. The writing part can be designed to test students' ability to make a written introduction to major Chinese and foreign festivals and excellent traditional Chinese culture. The oral test mainly
examines the students' expression ability, including the fluency of language expression, the accuracy and appropriateness of words. For example, students are provided with a cultural conflict situation or describe a cultural phenomenon, and students are asked to express their own views on the situation or phenomenon. This oral speech not only tests students' oral English ability, but also tests students' understanding of Chinese and foreign cultures.
4.3.6Cultivating Students' Cross-Cultural Communication Ability to Spread Exc ellent Chinese Culture
Wang (1998) points out that cross-cultural communication is a two-way process of communicating across languages and cultures, rather than a unilateral learning of a certain language or culture. In cross-cultural communication, students not only need to understand and appreciate western culture, but learn to use English to spread and promote Chinese culture as well, so that the world can have a more fair and objective understanding of China. Therefore, in the process of learning English, students should learn both Western culture and Chinese culture, enhance sensitivity to cultural differences, and treat other cultures equally, tolerant and friendly in cross-cultural communication. They should know that there is no superior or inferior culture, and every culture has its merits and demerits. What students should do is to take its essence and discard its dross. In order to carry out good cross-cultural communication, students need to have the cross-cultural expression ability. However, it can be seen from the results of the interview of students and the questionnaire of teachers that students' ability to describe Chinese culture in English is weak. Students' lack of opportunities to express Chinese culture in English also leads to their weak expression ability. Therefore, while teaching Chinese culture, teachers are expected to train students' oral expression ability consciously and promote students to use the language in real environment.
This part is the conclusion of the research, including major findings, limitations of the study and suggestions for further research.
The study conducts questionnaires and interviews with students and teachers, and finds that the current situation of the integration of Chinese culture into senior high school English teaching is as follows:
First of all, teachers and students have positive feelings and attitudes towards the integration of Chinese culture. Both students and teachers agree that it is necessary for senior high school students to learn Chinese culture. Moreover, students have a certain sense of cross-cultural communication. The teacher thinks it necessary to develop students' capability of expressing Chinese culture in English.
Secondly, although teachers and students are optimistic towards the integration of Chinese culture, the teaching process and methods of Chinese culture still need to be improved. In the process of Chinese culture teaching, there are few lessons prepared and the teaching method is single. Most teachers teach culture based on the content of textbooks. Lacking the practice of cultural knowledge, students have few opportunities to express Chinese culture in English.
Then, both students and teachers say that compared with western cultural knowledge, the proportion of Chinese cultural knowledge is not reasonable, which could not meet the demands of teachers and students. In the interview, the teachers also think that one of the most important factors affecting the integration of Chinese culture is the lack of available teaching resources.
Teachers and students agree on the integration of Chinese culture, but the teaching effect is not satisfactory. It also reveals that the facts that students are faced with great pressure to go to college as well as heavy learning assignments and homework and that teachers have heavy teaching tasks and limited time attribute to the poor effect of cultural teaching. Meanwhile, the lack of teaching resources and the insufficient of Chinese cultural knowledge in the
college entrance examination are also supposed to be the reasons.
Finally, in view of the current situation and influencing factors, strategies are put forward to improve the integration of Chinese culture into senior high school English teaching. In terms of teachers, they should improve their professional competence and knowledge of Chinese culture. In terms of the curriculum, the teaching resources of Chinese culture should be enriched, extracurricular activities and school-based courses should be developed, and the opportunities for students to get in touch with Chinese culture should be increased. In terms of teaching materials, Chinese culture should be properly distributed in textbook and the Chinese culture content should advance with the times to attract students' interest. Improving the cultural evaluation mechanism is not only to evaluate students' learning effect, but also to timely evaluate teachers' teaching of Chinese culture. The examination of Chinese culture will be increased in the senior high school English academic level examination and college entrance examination. One of the purposes of learning Chinese excellent culture is to enable students to describe Chinese culture in English and spread excellent Chinese culture in cross-cultural communication. Therefore, when teaching Chinese culture, the teacher must pay attention to the training of students' ability to express Chinese culture in English in real situations.
5.2Limitations of the Study
While the research has been finished, there are some limitations. First of all, the design of the research instruments is adapted from other researchers, and its reliability and validity meet the standards for use, but it is not very authoritative. Secondly, qualitative and quantitative research methods are used to investigate the current situation of the integration of Chinese culture into English teaching in senior high schools, but the investigation is only done in Zhangjiakou No. 1 Senior Middle School, and it is not very representative. The results of the survey can only reflect the current situation of the integration of Chinese culture in the region or the school. Thirdly, due to the lack of ability and experience of the researcher, the analysis may not be comprehensive enough.
5.3Suggestions for Further Study
In future studies, the scope of the study can be expanded and the sample of the survey
can be more extensive. The schools investigated can be selected from key middle schools, ordinary senior high schools, or even vocational senior high schools. In the selection of regions, economically developed cities, economically underdeveloped cities, and rural senior high schools can be chosen for comparative analysis. In the choice of research methods, empirical research can be used. For the proposed strategies, can be verified in practical teaching, and provide reference for the integration of Chinese culture into senior high school English teaching.
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