Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1Research Background 1
1.2Purpose of Research 4
1.3Significance of Research 4
1.4Structure of the Paper 5
Chapter 2 Literature Review 7
2.1.1Definition of Curriculum Ideological and Political Education 7
2.1.2Research on Curriculum Ideological and Political Education 8
18.104.22.168Foreign Research on Ideological and Political Education 8
22.214.171.124Domestic Research on Curriculum Ideological and Political Education 10
2.2Mother Tongue Culture Integration 14
2.2.1Definition of Culture 14
2.2.2Chinese Culture 15
2.2.3Research on Mother Tongue Culture Integration 16
126.96.36.199Foreign Research on Mother Tongue Culture Integration 16
188.8.131.52Domestic Research on Mother Tongue Culture Integration 17
2.3Theoretical Basis 18
2.3.1The Infiltration Theory 19
2.3.2Intercultural Communication Theory 19
2.3.3Input-Output Hypothesis 21
184.108.40.206Krashen's Language Input Hypothesis 21
220.127.116.11Swain's Language Output Hypothesis 22
Chapter 3 Research Design 25
3.1Research Questions 25
3.2Research Subjects 25
3.3Research Methods 27
3.3.1Questionnaire Survey 27
3.3.2Test Survey Method 28
3.3.4Experiment Method 29
3.4Research Procedures 30
3.4.1Research Preparation 30
3.4.2Teaching Experiment Cases 31
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion 43
4.1Analysis and Discussion of Current Situation of Chinese Culture Teaching 43
4.1.1Students' Questionnaires Results and Analysis 43
4.1.2Teachers' Questionnaires Results and Analysis 49
4.1.3Analysis of Teachers' Interviews 55
4.1.4Analysis of Students' Interviews 58
4.2Analysis and Discussion of Students' Ability to Express Chinese Culture in
4.3Analysis and Discussion on the Effect of Integrating Chinese Cultural Ideological
and Political Elements into Senior High School English Teaching experiments 64
4.3.1Analysis and Discussion of the Students' English Scores 64
18.104.22.168Comparison of English Learning Achievement Between
Experimental Class and Control Class Before the Experiment 64
22.214.171.124Comparison of English Learning Achievement Between
Experimental Class and Control Class after the Experiment 66
126.96.36.199Comparison of English Learning Achievement before and after in the Experiment Class 68
188.8.131.52Comparison of English Learning Achievement before and after in the Control Class 69
4.3.2Analysis of Students' Interview After Experiment 70
4.3.3Discussion of the Effects 72
Chapter 5 Conclusion 75
5.1Research Findings 75
5.1.1The Findings of Current Situation of Integrating Chinese Cultural
Ideological and Political Elements into Senior High School English Teaching .. 75
5.1.2The Findings about Senior High Students' Current Ability to Express
Chinese Culture in English 76
5.1.3The Findings of Chinese Cultural Ideological and Political Elements Integrating into Senior High School English Teaching Experiment 76
5.2Research Implications 77
5.3Limitations and Suggestions of the Research 79
Appendix A 85
Appendix B 87
Appendix C 89
Appendix D 91
Appendix E 93
Appendix F 97
List of Tables
Table 2-1 Literature Retrieval Statistics 11
Table 3-1 Students' Information 26
Table 3-2 Teachers' Information 26
Table 3-3 Reliability Statistics 28
Table 3-4 Teaching Contents 31
Table 3-4 Cultural Teaching Methods of NECS (2017) 31
Table 3-5 Teaching Case 1 32
Table 3-6 Teaching Case 2 37
Table 4-1 The Attitude Towards Chinese Culture in General for Students 43
Table 4-2 The Necessity of Chinese and Target Language Culture Teaching in English
Teaching for Students 44
Table 4-3 The Influence of Integrating Chinese Culture on English Learning 45
Table 4-4 Chinese Culture Input in English Teaching in High School for Students 47
Table 4-5 Target Culture Input in English Teaching of High School for Students 48
Table 4-6 Teachers' Self-evaluation of the Competence to Express Chinese Culture 50
Table 4-7 The Attitude towards Chinese Culture in General for Teachers 50
Table 4-8 The Necessity of Chinese and Target Language Culture Teaching in English
Teaching for Teachers 51
Table 4-9 Chinese Culture and Target Language Culture Teaching Time 52
Table 4-10 Chinese Culture Input in English Teaching in High School for Teachers 53
Table 4-11 Target Culture Input in English Teaching in High School for Teachers 54
Table 4-12 Description of Students' Chinese Cultural Expression Ability Test Scores 61
Table 4-13 Descriptive Statistics on Pre-test of Experiment Class and Control Class 65
Table 4-14 Independent Samples T-test on Pre-test of Experimental Class and Control
Table 4-15 Descriptive Statistics on Post-test of Experiment Class and Control Class 66
Table 4-16 Independent Samples T-test on Post-test of Experimental Class and Control
Table 4-17 Descriptive Statistics of the Pre-test and Post-test in the Experimental Class 68
Table 4-18 Paired Samples T-test for Pre-test and Post-test in the Experimental Class ... 68
Table 4-19 Descriptive Statistics of the Pre-test and Post-test in the Control Class 69
Table 4-20 Paired Samples T-test for Pre-test and Post-test in the Control Class 69
A Study on the Integration of Chinese Culture into Senior High School
English Teaching under the Background of Curriculum Ideological
and Political Education
Chapter 1 Introduction
This chapter begins with the background of the study, then the purpose and significance of the study. After that, the structure of the thesis is clearly explained.
In 2018, in his speech at the National Education Conference, General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized that moral education should be integrated into all aspects of ideological and moral education, cultural knowledge education, and social practice education (Xi, 2018). Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, he has repeatedly gone deep into the teaching site of ideological and political courses of universities, primary and secondary schools and teaching and scientific research institutions to conduct research and make important instructions, and has chaired seminars for teachers of ideological and political theory courses in schools and delivered important speeches. Xi Jinping (2020) also stresses that the Chinese nation has formed a broad and profound fine traditional culture for thousands of years. It has provided profound strength for the construction of ideological and political courses together with revolutionary culture and advanced socialist culture, providing a further clear direction and higher demands for the incorporation of Chinese excellent traditional
culture into ideological and political courses. Chen Baosheng (2017) believes that with all kinds of information flooding students' study and life in the New Era, students will inevitably come into contact with foreign cultures and be influenced by them in the process of English learning.
Language is an essential tool for cultural interaction. English has built a bridge between China and the world, and has become an important carrier of Chinese cultural export. For foreign language education, the primary issue is how to integrate Chinese culture into the English classroom to help students learn to express native language culture in English and ultimately build cultural confidence.
During the 21st century, foreign language education is expected to hold the important task of promoting our own culture to the world, so that students can talk about their homeland's culture and capable of using the accurate and authentic language to undertake the important task of spreading Chinese culture (He, 2012). To allow culture to “go out”, it is necessary to ensure that the cultural communicator himself has sufficient understanding and knowledge of Chinese culture, cultivates cultural awareness and builds cultural self-confidence in comparison with foreign cultures. The National English Curriculum Standards for Senior High School (2017 edition) (hereinafter referred to as NECS (2017)) has achieved a positive response by fulfilling the fundamental task of moral education with the goal of developing students' language skills, cultural awareness, thinking quality and learning ability. The NECS (2017) states that the high school English curriculum should help students develop a sense of human destiny and multicultural awareness, develop an open and tolerant attitude, deepen their understanding of their motherland's culture, enhance patriotic feelings, and strengthen cultural confidence.
The interpretation of cultural education in English language teaching has changed in the NECS (2017) compared to the National English Curriculum Standards (2013 edition). The NECS (2017) repeatedly emphasizes the need to build multicultural awareness, deepen understanding of Chinese culture, and increase cultural confidence. It broadens the range of “culture” by incorporating Chinese culture into the content of high school English teaching, and stresses that it is necessary for English teaching to enable students to compare and
evaluate Chinese and foreign cultures, identify with the national culture on the basis of knowing the cultural differences, enhance cultural self-confidence, and form their own cultural stance, thereby actively using English during communication to promote and transmit Chinese culture. Based on this background, high school English teachers, as front-line educators, should consciously take up the important responsibility of disseminating brilliant Chinese culture, and start out from themselves to establish the awareness of spreading Chinese culture and focus on enhancing the capability of teaching Chinese culture in order to cultivate the cultural quality of their students. This helps them to enhance their cultural confidence, so that students are able to learn to broadcast Chinese culture and tell Chinese stories in English.
Currently, research on the integration of Chinese culture in English language teaching is mainly centered in the domain of higher education. At the high school stage, although some English teachers have realized the importance of infiltrating Chinese culture into English teaching, the actual teaching activities are still dominated by Western culture. Also, the cultural introduction methods proposed by teachers are not scientific and reasonable enough, and many of them are just forms, not really implemented in place. Therefore, it is impossible to fundamentally solve the problems and abuses exposed to the actual learning process of high school English. And most of the teaching research shows that Chinese high school English teachers encounter both difficulties and challenges in this area.
Therefore, it is practical to research the current status of the Chinese culture teaching in high school English classrooms under the background of the current Curriculum Ideology and Political Education, for guiding teachers to better fulfill the new curriculum standards in classroom teaching, developing students' ability to comprehend and voice Chinese culture, thus helping students enhance their cultural confidence and learn to use English to spread Chinese culture and tell Chinese stories in cross-cultural communication. Foreign language teaching should pay attention to both language teaching and culture teaching. English teachers ought to consciously infiltrate western culture in their teaching so that students can better master English as a foreign language, but they cannot allow students accept it too mechanically, resulting in the phenomenon of “Chinese cultural aphasia”, which coincides with the concept of “Curriculum Ideological and Political Education”.
1.2Purpose of Research
The development of China's education in the New Era requires reflecting the educational value of the disciplines and equipping students with the character and core competencies needed for the future. Combining Chinese culture with English teaching in high school can not only help students build a rich knowledge of the language, but also develop unique cultural values. The purpose of this study is to clarify the current situation of mother tongue cultural integration in high school English classrooms and students' ability to express Chinese culture in English, and thus further explore the effects of integrating Chinese culture into high school English teaching on students' English performance in English learning, so as to provide a basis for teaching Chinese culture in high school.
As a high school English teacher, we should introduce not only the corresponding Western culture but also our own native culture in the process of English teaching. This will not only encourage students to think in English and increase their interest in learning English, but also help improve their overall cultural quality, broaden their horizons, understand the nature and connotation of culture in cultural comparison better, and to provide a reliable platform for cross-cultural communication.
1.3Significance of Research
The integration of Curriculum Ideological and Political Education into English teaching is determined by China's national conditions. Ma Yanhong (2021) points out that integrating “Curriculum Ideology and Politics” into English teaching will promote the construction and development of English subjects rooted in China's national conditions, contribute to the exploration of Chinese elements in English language teaching content, promote the localization and nationalization of English education teaching, and make English education present Chinese characteristics.
The first is the theoretical significance. This study investigates the current situation of integrating the ideological and political elements of Chinese culture into high school English teaching, and makes corresponding suggestions for future Chinese culture teaching. It not only supplements the research on Chinese cultural teaching theory in high school English 4
teaching, but also helps to cultivate students' socialist core values. And to help students strengthen their cultural self-confidence.
The second is the practical significance. At present, the “Curriculum Ideological and Political Education” system is mainly carried out in major colleges and universities, and a complete system has not been formed in senior high school. Therefore, the goal of this study is to help students expand their international vision, stick to their local position, and reveal the equal dialogue among contemporary civilizations from the history of interaction and exchange between Chinese and foreign (regional) cultures in comparison and comparison of Chinese and foreign languages and cultures. The practical significance is that we hope to enable students to understand cultural differences in an inclusive manner and achieve the goal of moral education. It is also hoped that the notion of Ideological and Political Education in the English curriculum can receive the attention of high school English teachers.
1.4Structure of the Paper
This paper is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is an introduction, which introduces the background, purpose and significance of the study. The second chapter is a literature review and theoretical basis, which mainly describes the basic concepts of Ideological and Political Education, Chinese cultural integration and cross-cultural communication, and domestic and foreign studies on ideological and political education, native language culture teaching and related theoretical foundations. Chapter three is the research design, which is also the core of this paper. This chapter includes research questions, research objects, and research methods. Chapter four is the analysis of results and discussion. Chapter five is the conclusion section, which describes the main findings and limitations of this study, enlightenment for teaching and learning, and suggestions for further research.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
This Chapter is mainly about three parts. The first part is Ideological and Political Education and the researches at home and abroad. The second part is mother tongue culture integration and researches at home and abroad. The third part is theoretical basis, including the infiltration theory, intercultural communication theory and input and out hypothesis. They are explained in detail below.
2.1Curriculum Ideological and Political Education
This section introduces the definition of Curriculum Ideological and Political Education and related research at home and abroad.
2.1.1Definition of Curriculum Ideological and Political Education
The idea of “Curriculum Ideology and Politics” originated from the curriculum reform in Shanghai. In 2014, the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission put forward this concept in the Special Plan for the Construction of Ideological and Political Education Teaching System in Shanghai Colleges and Universities. In the context of social development, the Communist Party of China and the government have further pointed out the importance of moral education, which is the new regulation for educational development in China in the report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. On September 10, 2018, General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out at the National Education Conference that cultivating what kind of people is the primary issue of education, and that moral education should be carried out throughout all fields of basic education, vocational education and higher education (Xi, 2018).
Scholars have discussed the connotation of this concept, but there is no unified and clear statement. But what is certain is that ideological and political courses are not an extra course, but a teaching concept that fully exploits the ideological and political elements in each course
7 to educate students under the guidance of Marxist theory. According to Yue Manman and Liu Zhengguang (2020), there are two aspects of the concrete connotation of Curriculum Ideological and Political Education that can be understood: excellent culture and the spirit of the times. Among them, excellent culture covers the essence of both the fine Chinese traditional culture and the world's excellent culture. Li Jianhua (2016) believes that “Curriculum Ideological and Political Education” is originally “teaching and educating people”, which is a re-emphasis on the function of curriculum education under the new historical conditions, aiming at boarding the Ideological and Political Education subject channels outside the Ideological and Political Curriculum, and then accomplish the basic task of ethical education in a more diverse, systematic and holistic way.
In the author's opinion, the connotation of Curriculum Ideological and Political Education can also be understood as a hidden curriculum that includes Xi Jinping's Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, Chinese excellent culture, world excellent culture, the spirit of the times and the idea of a community with a shared future for mankind.
2.1.2Research on Curriculum Ideological and Political Education
This section focuses on domestic and international research related to Curriculum Ideological and Political Education. In addition, domestic studies contain four parts namely moral education theory education research, Curriculum and Ideological and Political Education, Curriculum and Ideological and Political Education in the English course of university and senior school English course.
184.108.40.206Foreign Research on Ideological and Political Education
There is no such concept as Ideological and Political Education abroad, but in order to better carry out their own political thoughts, all countries have attached importance to their citizens' ideological and political education, especially young people, and have engaged in vigorous exploration.
Due to differences in historical traditions, social systems, etc., there are differences in the goals of Curriculum Ideological and Political Education in different countries.
Moral education was very important in Ancient Greece. Socrates proposes that knowledge is a virtue, and argues that if one has the right moral knowledge, one will practice it, so he is a virtuous person. Aristotle advocates that virtue must be cultivated through practice, and that good moral habits should be developed through education containing “rationality”.
In the modern western context, countries have different appellations and forms of moral education. Some countries call moral education religious, ethical, civic and moral education. Back in the 1940s, American secondary education emphasized the cultivation of students' sense of civic responsibility. Brown (1975) points out that the most needed reform in American education is a new and more viable emphasis on the responsibilities of citizenship — from kindergarten through high school and the major priority is the positive emphasis on responsibilities and values, which refer to arrange of attitudes, beliefs, commitments and obligations that would help in functioning in a democratic society.
The British government attaches great importance to moral education in schools. For example, Locke (2011) points out in his book Two Treatises of Civil Government that freedom is the premise and purpose of civic education, and the goal of civic education is to cultivate free citizens. In addition, in his famous book Some Thoughts Concerning Education, he also asserts that civic education is closely linked to the kingdom's future, and that it is important for Britain to maintain a leading position in the world. He discusses the contents, methods and approaches of civic education, which has been instrumental in the accumulation of British civic culture and civic education theories (Locke, 2014). Mill (2007), a British political scientist and philosopher, points out in his book On Liberty that the purpose of civic education is to maximize the happiness of the greatest number of people. British scholars Smith and Alan (2003) think that the UK developed civic education to ease and strengthen the relationship between different communities.
The goal of Ideological and Political Education in France is to make students become ‘self-disciplined citizens' with a sense of responsibility and obligation, or have ‘citizenship'. Jan Steutel and Ben Spiecker (2011) mentions in Civic Education in a Liberal-Democratic that the purpose of civic education is to cultivate the morals and virtues of free citizens and instill typical moral virtues, such as tolerance, non-discrimination and democratic attitudes.
Due to the influence of history, cultural tradition and other factors in Germany, German universities have distinct religious characteristics and individualism in the goal of Ideological and Political Education, and religious education is still the core content of German moral education. The goal of moral education in Germany is based on the universal principles of human nature and humanitarianism. Its essence and core are the embodiment of bourgeois ideas and values such as liberty, democracy and social rights based on individualism.
It can be concluded that foreign political education has the underlying characteristics of invisibility and other aspects, and it also has integration. These countries set up courses independently or infiltrate them into history, politics, finance psychology, and disciplines such as “modern society” and “social issues” through these “civic education”, “personality education”, “value education” The education of bourgeois political views, values and morals is being carried out all the time.
220.127.116.11Domestic Research on Curriculum Ideological and Political Education
(1)Moral Education Theory Research
Since the ancient times, China has attached great importance to moral education. Many thinkers and educators have discussed a lot about moral cultivation and its process. For example, Confucius in the Spring and Autumn Period takes “Benevolence” and “Ritual” as the content of moral education, and made the determination, self-restraint, practice, moderation, introspection and reform as important principles and methods of moral practice. Dong Zhongshu, a famous thinker and philosopher of the Western Han Dynasty, advocates that through extensive ideological and political education, subjects should establish a firm belief in feudal ethics, develop consistent moral habits, and consciously regulate their words and actions by such moral standards. In general, the distinctive feature of traditional moral education in ancient China is the emphasis on the internal cultivation and external enlightenment of the individual. In modern times, more emphasis was placed on all-round moral education. Cai Yuanpei, the president of Peking University, was the first educational thinker to suggest that civic moral education, worldview education, and aesthetic education should not be neglected in modern education, and he advocated the simultaneous development of all five types of education.
(2)Research on Curriculum Ideological and Political Education
With the progressive improvement of the political system and the further advancement of the level of quality education in recent years in the 21st century. The Ideological and Political Education in China has been inherited, developed and innovated, and thus the Ideological and Political Education concepts have emerged with the requirements of the times. The number of documents retrieved by the author through a precise search of the literature on CNKI by the following subject terms as of September 2021 is shown in Table 2-1.
Table 2-1 Literature Retrieval Statistics
Theme Number Core Journals Dissertation
Curriculum Ideological and Political Education 23,000 834 88
English Curriculum Ideological and Political 2,263 20 16
Senior High School Curriculum Ideological and 200 14 48
Senior High School English Curriculum 19 0 5
Ideological and Political Education
From the above table, it can be seen that the current research on the Curriculum
Ideological and Political Education is mainly focused on colleges and universities. It mainly explores how to carry out Curriculum Ideological and Political Education teaching in colleges and universities in conjunction with different professional courses, with the aim of exploring the implementation path of Curriculum Ideological and Political Education in professional courses and putting forward relevant suggestions accordingly.
(3)Research on Curriculum Ideological and Political Education Curriculum in the English Course of University
Scholars have different interpretations of the concept and connotation of ideological and political education in English courses. According to Wu Peifen (2019), as a basic humanities course, students can be exposed to a large number of English materials in the college English
11 course to learn about the history, politics, culture, and customs of Western countries. These materials also cover various aspects of Ideological and Political Education. She also claims that teachers should expand and deepen the ideological and political content of the course, combine imparting knowledge with Ideological and Political Education, use the course as a carrier to transform subject resources into educational resources, and make use of the commonalities and differences between Chinese and Western values to develop the course in Ideological and Political Education, cultivate students' core socialist values, and enhance cultural confidence in a subtle way. For the mission and responsibility of the English Curriculum of Ideological and Political Education, Xia Wenhong and He Fang (2019) discuss three aspects: understanding the contemporary value of the English Curriculum of Ideological and Political Education in colleges and universities in establishing moral education, guiding young students to acquire Western culture with a critical perspective, and cultivating national cultural self-confidence of young students. It is considered that the construction of Curriculum Ideological and Political Education is the key to cultivating builders and successors of society with special characteristics of China. Teaching English in college assumes unsurpassed duties and obligations in the Curriculum of Ideological and Political Education, and is also one of the valid means of moral education. Qiao Wenjing (2020) analyzes the research status of Curriculum in Ideological and Political Education, explains the rich connotations of “cultural confidence” and “Curriculum in Ideological and Political Education”, and also studies the theoretical significance and practical value of the construction of college English Curriculum in Ideological and Political Education. The theoretical significance lies in the integration of ideology and socialist core values into the whole process of university education. And its practical value lies in helping college students establish a proper worldview, perspective on their lives and sense of values. It will help realize the training goals of college English teaching, enhance the sense of mission of college students, and help cultivate international talents with outstanding political quality.
(4)Research on Curriculum Ideological and Political Education curriculum in Senior High school English Courses
After searching the database of papers, it can be found that there are many papers combining English teaching and moral education, but most scholars mainly focus on college 12
and vocational students, and basic education is rarely involved. For example, Yao Chuyu (2020) investigates the curriculum thinking elements of high school English textbooks and their classification. Then, Tan Kexin (2021) explores the effect of Curriculum Ideological and Political Education in high school English teaching by incorporating the education of socialist core values into the English classroom.
By the author's view, the Ideological and Political Education in high school English curriculum is the concrete of “Curriculum Ideological and Political Education” at the primary and secondary school levels. According to the characteristics and advantages of the English subject, in addition to teaching language knowledge, taking cultural learning as the leading curriculum throughout foreign language education, exploring a feasible path for Chinese culture to be integrated into the English classroom, and enhance cultural confidence. Increase the content of cultural comparison between Chinese and Western civilizations, cultivate cross-cultural communication awareness, enhance cultural adaptability and understanding, further cultivate students' pragmatic understanding and expression ability, improve cultural context awareness, and cultivate students' “home and country feelings” and “world vision”, to realize the whole process and all-round education of foreign language courses, so that students can understand Chinese national conditions while understanding Western culture, strengthen socialist ideals and beliefs, and strengthen cultural self-confidence.
By increasing the content of cultural comparison between Chinese and Western civilizations, cultivating intercultural communication awareness, enhancing cultural adaptability and comprehension, further developing students' pragmatic comprehension and expression skills, improving students' awareness of cultural contexts, and cultivating students' “home country feeling” and “world vision”, thus realizing the whole process and all-round education of foreign language courses, enabling students to understand Western culture while understanding China's national conditions, and strengthening socialist ideals and beliefs, and enhance cultural self-confidence.
The author agrees with the above-mentioned scholars. English education plays a bridging role between Chinese and foreign civilizations. English Curriculum in Ideological and Political Education can enable students to learn Western language and culture while stimulating their sense of historical mission and responsibility to inherit and promote Chinese 13
civilization by cultivating their understanding of the Chinese system, the Chinese way, Chinese theory and Chinese culture. In cross-cultural communication, we will continue to enrich and innovate Chinese culture and tell the story of China to the world in English.
According to the review, the English course stresses the comprehensive cultivation of students' language ability, cultural awareness, thinking quality and learning ability, and is characterized by the integration and unification of instrumentality and humanism. Whether it is a college English class or a high school English class, they should carry forward the spirit of the 19th CPC National Congress, dig deeply into the ideology, humanistic spirit, and moral norms contained in traditional Chinese culture, inherit and innovate according to the requirements of the times, and let Chinese culture show its permanent charm and characteristics of the times.
2.2Mother Tongue Culture Integration
This section introduces the definition of mother tongue culture integration and related research at home and abroad.
2.2.1Definition of Culture
British scholar Williams once said that the word ‘culture' in English is one of the most sophisticated words in the language. There are as many as 200 definitions of culture so far. From the etymological and semantic examination, the word culture is transformed from the Latin Culture. Its original meaning refers to the cultivation, processing and improvement of land by humans in the process of transforming the external nature to meet their food and shelter needs. In his famous book Primitive Culture, Taylor (1871) proposed a definition of culture that what is called culture or civilization is a complex that includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, laws, customs, and any other abilities and habits acquired by individuals as members of society. Stern (1992) divides cultures into broad culture and narrow culture according to the structure and category of culture. Culture in a broad sense is capitalized culture, which mainly refers to the sum of material and spiritual wealth generated by human beings in the progress of the society's historical development, covering material culture, institutional culture and psychological culture. The culture in the narrow sense is the
lowercase culture, which is the general social habits of people, such as customs, clothing, food, housing and transportation, behavioral norms and lifestyles. Brown (1994) argues that culture is the beliefs, habits, and ways of life shared by people living in a particular geographical location.
NECS (2017) stipulates that culture covers both material and spiritual aspects. The material aspect mainly includes food, clothing, architecture, transportation, etc., and related inventions and creations; the spiritual aspect mainly includes philosophy, science, education, history, literature, art, etc., as well as values, moral cultivation, aesthetic interests, and social customs.
To sum up, there are two different definitions of culture. One is broad, including the sum of material wealth and spiritual wealth created by human beings in the process of social and historical development. The second is a narrow sense, that is, a knowledge system composed of human cultural values.
Chinese culture has a historical accumulation of 5,000 years, with unique rational thinking and humanistic spirit. Cui Gang (2009) believes that Chinese culture mainly includes two aspects. The first is the excellent traditional culture accumulated in China's thousands of years of history, including academic thought, religion, education, literature, art, technology, architecture, history, languages and so on. Second, it refers to the basic national conditions of today's Chinese society. In the report of the 19th CPC National Congress, General Secretary Xi Jinping made a scientific definition of socialist culture with Chinese characteristics in the New Era, and also and stated the rules and development orientations of cultural construction. It mainly includes traditional Chinese culture, revolutionary culture and advanced socialist culture.
The NECS (2017) plainly shows that China's high school foreign language education should implement the Xi JinpingThought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, organically combine socialist core values with Chinese cultural education contents, enable students to grasp cultural knowledge, understand cultural connotations, compare cultural similarities and differences, absorb cultural essence, form good character of self-respect, 15
self-confidence and self-improvement. Ultimately, students will have the ability to communicate and spread Chinese culture across cultures.
As a result, the Chinese cultural integration in this study refers to the material, social system and organization, science and art, customs and behavior patterns and values related to China mentioned in the cultural knowledge section of the NECS (2017).
2.2.3Research on Mother Tongue Culture Integration
This section contains two parts. First, the foreign research on mother tongue culture integration. Second, the domestic research on mother tongue culture integration.
18.104.22.168Foreign Research on Mother Tongue Culture Integration
In the 1990s, American scholars Legutke and Tomas (1991) notes that intercultural awareness is an organic combination of native culture and the target language, rather than simply sensitivity to foreign culture. Awareness is based on cultural understanding and also facilitates the communication and development of the native language culture. Kramsch (1993) argues that the intention of literacy instruction is to allow participants to understand the substance and character of global cultures and thereby build a firm ground in the process of language learning, rather than to stop learning in the process of mastering a foreign language. Kramsch (2000) also explains in another book Language and Culture that learners should not only have a better understanding of mother tongue culture, but also learn to interact across countries with a diverse cultural background, which is also an important content of cultural communication ability. This is a good example of how a good language learner should organically integrate the target language culture with the native language culture, thus laying a solid foundation for building mutual cultural interaction. Subsequently, American scholar samovar (2000) also stressed in his book Cross Cultural Communication that only a comprehensive and systematic grasp of language and culture can promote the development of transnational culture. Kirkpatrick (quoted from Wu Nian & Xiao Yan, 2004) also believes that in the context of globalization, cultural differences need to be respected with a more general appreciation of the culture of the native language and the culture of the target language also being an important portion of English language teaching. Foreign language teaching can show
bath culture, and create a good environment for transnational cultural exchange, which is conducive to enhancing national unity and cohesion. Margana (2009) strongly supports and endorses the promotion of indigenous cultures in the course of English language teaching as they allow students to understand the characteristics of the local culture, while transnational cultural exchange is a multifaceted interaction that cannot be accomplished on one hand, so cultural absorption and transmission need to occur simultaneously.
To sum up, foreign research on cultural teaching started earlier and has been relatively systematic, which provides substantial theoretical guidance for further research in the field of cultural teaching and has certain reference significance for China's cultural teaching.
22.214.171.124Domestic Research on Mother Tongue Culture Integration
Since the 1980s, culture introduction in foreign language teaching has been given high priority in China. Scholars believe that in foreign language teaching, language learners should recognize the importance of both the target language and the native language. For example, Shu Dingfang and Zhuang Zhixiang (1996) points out that mother tongue culture plays two important roles in foreign language learning. One is the contrast effect, which means that the mother tongue culture and the target language culture can be explained in a comparative way to better understand the target language culture and gain a new understanding of the mother tongue culture. Second, mother tongue culture can regulate students' emotions about cultural learning, so that students can treat language and culture learning with a positive and healthy attitude. They also stress that it is difficult to learn a foreign language well with a narrow national cultural outlook. According to Liu Zhengguang and He Suxiu (2000), mother tongue culture not only promotes the understanding of target language culture, but also deepens students' understanding of their own culture and help to cultivate students' objective, diverse and inclusive cultural attitude. They remind teachers of the two-way communication nature of foreign language teaching, and the need to treat both native and target language cultures equally. Yuan Fang (2006) indicates out that mother tongue culture teaching is conducive to cultivating students' awareness and ability of cross-cultural communication, realizing the overall goal of English courses, and cultivating students' comprehensive language quality. Wu Nian and Xiao Yan (2006) state that representative Chinese cultural knowledge should be
17 added to English textbooks. Peng Yunpeng (2010) proposed to use Chinese culture as a benchmark to compare and filter English culture. Pan Wenguo (2021) further noted that as China gradually moves to the center of the international stage, people around the world are eager to understand China and carry out more extensive communication with China. In this context, foreign language teaching in China is further enriching its goals, changing from a single route of input-oriented to a two-way route of both input and output, that is, both learning foreign languages and cultures and using the foreign languages learned to promote China and spread Chinese culture to the world through various occasions, and the latter will have an increasingly heavy task.
According to these scholars, it can be seen that native language culture has a position and role in foreign language teaching that cannot be ignored. It is impossible to cultivate students' cross-cultural communication skills and improve students' cultural awareness. To meet the current multi-ethnic and cross-regional communication environment and introduce the excellent Chinese culture to the world, English teachers should actively study the Chinese culture in English teaching.
Therefore, the author believes that the selected topic of the empirical study on the integration of Chinese culture into high school English teaching is in line with the hot topics, which is conducive to giving full play to the ideological and educational functions of the English curriculum, improving students' good moral qualities, and contributing to their learning, comprehension and admiration of superior Chinese and other cultures. Thus, they can enhance the national honor and international competitiveness of the Chinese nation, cultivate Chinese sentiment, strengthen cultural self-confidence, expand international vision, enhance international understanding, gradually improve cross-cultural communication ability, speculative ability, learning ability and innovation ability, form a correct world view, outlook on life and values, and let Chinese culture go out and tell the Chinese story well.
The third part is theoretical basis, including the infiltration theory, intercultural communication theory and input and out hypothesis. They are explained in detail below.
2.3.1The Infiltration Theory
In ideological and political education, the infiltration idea is a crucial concept. Penetration itself means that one thing gradually enters into another abstract thing. In the field of education, it is defined as an effective auxiliary means for improving the quality of education. Different scholars have also made specific explanations for the infiltration theory, mainly including Marxist cognitive infiltration theory and the infiltration principle of Ideological and Political pedagogy. Wang Dandan (2019) believes that the infiltration theory, as a powerful supplement to the indoctrination theory of ideological and political education, can infiltrate ideological and political education into curriculum teaching in an indirect and covert way. Through this education method, students can receive ideological and political education without being boring, reduce the rebellious psychology of students' learning, and eventually realize the target of ideological and political education for students in a subtle way.
The “infiltration theory” used in this paper is to imperceptibly infiltrate ideological and political education into English teaching. The purpose of infiltration is nothing more than to show the ideological and political education in the form loved by the educated, in a step-by-step state, so as to improve the pleasure of the whole educational process. Only through infiltration can ideological and political education and English not be separated for a long time. The author believes that the infiltration of moral education in English teaching means that senior high school English teachers should carefully prepare the teaching design before class, deeply dig and process contained in the English teaching materials of Chinese cultural ideological and political elements, accord with the characteristics of English subject approaches and methods to teach students ideological elements of Chinese culture, make the student strong cultural self-confidence, speak good Chinese story.
2.3.2Intercultural Communication Theory
Cross-cultural communication is a wide-ranging topic. Research on this topic has emerged in the United States, which is known as a cultural melting pot. Nowadays, international exchanges are getting closer and closer, and each country has a specific culture, so conflicts and barriers easily arise when communicating with people from different cultural backgrounds, so intercultural communication was born. In his book, The Silent Language,
Hall (1959) united culture with language and cross-cultural communication for the first time. Subsequently, Hanvey (1979) defines the awareness of intercultural communication as four stages: the first stage is the comprehension of diverse cultures, which enables people to know the cultural habits and emotions of different nations. The second stage is the identification and distinction of cultural differences. The general response is more conflicting and difficult to understand, which is called cultural shock. The third stage is to understand the cultural differences of different countries in a comprehensive and detailed manner based on rational analysis and to express acceptance on this basis. The fourth stage involves being capable of putting yourself in the other person's place, so as to express understanding and identity from the heart. On this basis, he also pointed out that in the face of cultural differences in cross-cultural communication, we should not only know, but also understand and accept. Therefore, the importance of cultivating awareness of cross-cultural communication is highlighted (Hanvey,1998). NECS (2017) defines intercultural awareness as the understanding of domestic and overseas cultures and the recognition of cultural excellence, and as the intercultural cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral orientations of students in the context of globalization. Many domestic scholars believe that we should enhance the awareness of cross-cultural communication. Hu Wenzhong (2005) emphasizes the important role of communicative awareness in the process of intercultural communication and made some proposals for developing students' communicative competence.
David (1972) believes that effective cross-cultural communication requires people to have the ability to flexibly adjust their behavior in the target language culture. American sociolinguist Hymes (1971) put forward the concept of communicative competence. He believes that a person's potential language ability includes both language knowledge and language use, and that a primary purpose is served by foreign language instruction is to foster the quality or ability to successfully communicate across cultures. Byram (1997) proposes that cross-cultural competence is the ability of communicators to coordinate different languages and cultural systems, covering four elements: knowledge, attitude, skills and critical cultural consciousness. Among them, foreign language skills are the foundation, and critical cultural consciousness plays a core role. Gao Yihong (2002) put forward the concept of capability across and beyond two levels. Cross-cultural competence at cross-level includes
cultural knowledge, communication skills and empathy. The abilities beyond the level include the awareness of cultural differences, flexibility and openness, and productive self-identity. Zhang Hongling (2012) believed that in the context of globalization, an important performance of foreign language teaching in serving social development and personal needs is to set cross-cultural emotion, attitude, knowledge and ability training as its ultimate goal. Therefore, integrating cross-cultural education into foreign language teaching can not only make acquisition of foreign languages more worthwhile and enjoyable, but also promote foreign language teaching to achieve social and cultural goals. To enable foreign language learners to master not only foreign language communication skills, but also new-age talents with cross-cultural awareness, international perspective and cross-cultural communication skills.
In short, intercultural teaching is primarily centered on cultural awareness. It is based on a comparative analysis of Chinese and Western cultures, thus better helping students to understand the differences between Chinese and foreign cultures. In this environment, students need to understand the characteristics and inner meaning of the target language culture and the native language culture, and integrate into Chinese local culture.
This part introduces Krashen's language input hypothesis and Swain's language output hypothesis. They are explained in detail below.
126.96.36.199Krashen's Language Input Hypothesis
Krashen (1985) obtained enlightenment from learners' mother tongue acquisition and put forward the famous input hypothesis. In the input hypothesis, Krashen proposes that language acquisition must be completed through language input. Without a large amount of input, acquisition cannot be completed. In the input process, he emphasizes understandable input. Krashen uses the “i + 1” pattern to represent the information about intelligibility input. The “i” represents the current state of language knowledge of learners, “i + 1” represents the next state of language knowledge level of language development. Only in this way can the input information achieve the ideal acquisition effect. Therefore, according to this hypothesis,
21 language ability cannot be taught directly. Only when learners reach a certain language ability through comprehensible input can discourse ability be produced naturally.
Krashen's input hypothesis provides guidance for the integration of Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into senior high school English teaching. According to the input hypothesis, the key to students' successful language acquisition lies in comprehensible input. Students can only fully grasp language once they have fully received and understood comprehensible input. In other words, comprehensible input is a necessary condition for students to learn language.
188.8.131.52Swain's Language Output Hypothesis
In the 1980s, Canadian linguist Swain believed that language input is important, but the language output cannot be ignored either. Comprehensible input is a precondition of language learning, but it is not the only way. The result of language learning is output, that is, output language. Therefore, for Krashen's input hypothesis, Swain (1985) developed the output hypothesis, which is a criticism and supplement to the input hypothesis. In Swain's perspective, there are four functions of language output.
The first is the attention function, i.e., while the learner expresses the language, the learner tends to pay more attention to the form of the language and is able to understand the deficiencies and difficulties of his or her own language expression, which arouses students' interest in learning to learn more expressions. The second is to test the function of hypothesis. Students test whether their language form and language meaning expression are correct through continuous language output, and constantly modify their language expression in the process of communicating with others, so as to finally acquire the correct form of language expression. The third is metalanguage function, which means that learners integrate knowledge by reflecting and analyzing their own language expression, and reflect on the output language knowledge, structure and meaning according to their existing knowledge, so as to promote correct language expression. The last is to enhance the fluency function. Learners combine the output with their own grammar. Through continuous practice and output, learners' language expression will be more fluent.
In Swain's view, people simply value the perception of meaning in the input process, but they are not aware of the expression of form. Only through the output method can the learner improve the practical application ability, not the simple semantic processing. It is not enough to passively acquire linguistic input. Learners should take every opportunity to apply input resources to meaningful practice.
In conclusion, Krashen's language input hypothesis and Swain's output hypothesis provide evidence for language acquisition and cultural acquisition in different ways. Cultural input is a prerequisite for cultural output. There can be no cultural output without cultural input. However, without output, good input cannot be achieved by emphasizing only input. Therefore, in a foreign language teaching classroom where intercultural communication is the ultimate goal, input and output are equally important for language learners. Language learning can only be facilitated when cultural input and cultural output complement each other. Therefore, the input-output hypothesis can contribute a powerful theoretical basis for the research.
Chapter 3 Research Design
This chapter is divided into four parts, namely research questions, research subjects, research methods and research procedure. This study uses four research methods to collect relevant data: questionnaire, test, interview and experimental teaching.
This study is focused on the integration of Chinese culture into senior high school English teaching under the background of Ideological and Political Education. First, teachers are the implementers of the Chinese culture teaching requirements of the NECS (2017) and the guiders of Chinese culture teaching activities in English classroom teaching. Second, students are the carriers of Chinese culture going abroad. Therefore, the main research questions in this paper are:
(1)What's the current status of the integration of Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into high school English teaching?
(2)What is the current level of high school students' expression of Chinese culture in English?
(3)What is the influence of the integration of Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into high school English classroom on high school students' English language ability? What are the specific aspects?
There are two groups of participants. One group was composed of 16 teachers and the other group was composed of 100 students from two classes. The participants in this study were selected from a key senior high school in Fuzhou City. Generally speaking, the basic
25 level of students in the school is good, and the faculty is also strong, which can provide better research ideas and information for this study.
The general information of students and teachers can be shown in the following table. As for the students, they were divided into two groups. Class 2 was the control class which consists of 50 students. Class 29 with 50 students was the experimental class. Class 2 and Class 29 were two Classes of the equal rank. The students from the two classes were at the same level of learning and teaching. In this study, the teaching mode of integrating Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into high school English teaching was carried out in the experimental class and conventional teaching was carried out in the control class.
Table 3-1 Students' Information
category Information Frequency Percent
1. Gender Male 51 51%
Female 49 49%
2. English Learning years 6 years 19 19%
6---9 years 66 66%
More than 9 years 15 15%
Sum 100 100%
Table 3-2 Teachers' Information
category Information Frequency Percent
1. Gender Male 4 25%
Female 12 75%
2. English Teaching years Under 5 years 4 25%
5---10 years 3 1&75%
More than 10 years 9 56.25%
Sum 100 100%
There are four methods used to ensure the reliability and validity of this study, including questionnaires, tests, personal interviews, and experimental methods.
The questionnaires aimed at understanding the current situation of the integration of Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into senior high school English teaching from two angles of students and teachers.
The questionnaire for students (See Appendix A) which was adapted from Xiao Longfu, Xiao Di, Li Lan, and Song Yiwen's study on Chinese culture aphasia in English teaching in Chinese higher education (2010) and He Yahan's Study on the Integration of Chinese Culture in Senior High School English Curriculum and Instruction (2020). Based on their research, the author designed the questionnaire from the three dimensions. The questionnaire for students was divided into two parts, the first part was personal information, mainly to investigate students' gender and the years of learning English. The second part was the main part of the questionnaire. Q1-Q4 investigate students' attitudes toward acquiring Chinese culture in English class. Q5-Q7 examine the influence of integrating Chinese culture on English learning. Q8-Q17 contain five aspects on the input of Chinese as well as Western culture. They are daily teaching, English textbook, the frequency to read books for extracurricular reading, exercise and test-paper. And the items in this questionnaire were designed to make a comparison among the attitudes toward Chinese culture teaching and English culture teaching.
Teachers' questionnaire (See Appendix B) was based on Xiao Longfu, Xiao Di, Li Lan, and Song Yiwen's study on Chinese culture aphasia in English teaching in Chinese higher education (2010). It consisted of 18 questions and is divided into three dimensions. Q1-Q2 investigate teachers' self-evaluation of the competence for Chinese culture. Q3-Q7 is teachers' attitude towards teaching Chinese culture in English class. Q8-18 is five aspects of the integration of Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into the current situation of English classroom teaching. All questions were written in Chinese in order to be easily
understood by teachers and students. The questionnaires were answered by the Likert 5-level scale (1= completely disagree; 2= disagree; 3= uncertain; 4= agree; 5= strongly agree). The reliability of questionnaires was 0.805 (for students) and 0.845 (for teachers), which means the questionnaires are relatively reliable (see Table 3-3).
Table 3-3 Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's Alpha Items
Students .805 17
Teachers .830 18
3.3.2Test Survey Method
Test methods were used in this study for the sake of better exploring the second and third questions in this study.
First, in order to better understand students' ability to understand, master and express Chinese culture in English, this study prepared a set of Chinese cultural competence test questions after a questionnaire survey of students. The test aims at gaining insights into students' familiarity with English expressing Chinese culture. The whole test is involved with two parts (see Appendix D), namely, Chinese-English Translation and English-Chinese Translation.
Translation and Writing parts are mainly selected from Senior English for China (2019) published by People's Education Press, and the rest are Chinese cultural knowledge for daily use. Part one and Part two consisted of 32 translation questions on the excellent traditional Chinese culture, the socialist revolutionary culture and the advanced socialist culture, respectively. As for the Chinese fine traditional culture mainly includes traditional festivals, symbolic architectures, food, idioms and literary works and so on. Item 1 to Item 16 need to be translated into the target language and the item17 to item 32 need to be translated into their mother tongue. Each question is scored as 2 points. The total score of the test paper is 64. The researcher designed the content of part one and part two by extracting some vocabulary and idioms from current English textbooks and some vocabulary and idioms from nationally issued reference books suitable for first-year students, mainly with reference to the cognitive 28
and learning levels of first-year students. Through the examination of these questions, the students' ability to express Chinese culture in English is tested.
Second, for the third research question, in order to ensure the fairness of the experiment and the reliability and validity of the experimental results, the pre-test paper (see Appendix E) of the experiment is the first monthly English test paper of senior one uniformly ordered by the school, and the post-test paper (see Appendix F) is the final English test paper of senior one, and both the pre-test and post-test questions are related to cultural knowledge.
The interviews were conducted for further exploring the present condition and effects of blending elements of Chinese cultural thought and politics in high school English teaching. The interview for teachers (See Appendix C) is carried out during the spare time or break-time and three English teachers from different teaching age groups in the first year of high school participated in this interview. Each teacher's interview will last 10 to 15 minutes. As for the student interviews (See Appendix C), the author randomly interviewed six students from the experimental class both before and after the experiment. The duration of each student's interview was approximately five minutes.
It is a method in which the researcher controls certain conditions to understand the behavior or performance of the research subjects, and is mainly used in the experimental phase. By controlling the comparison class to check whether the integration of Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into senior high school English teaching is effective and using SPSS 22.0 software to analyze the data, we can get a more precise information about the study subjects and answer the third question in the study.
In this section, research preparation and teaching examples will be presented.
The study lasted for a semester, from September 2021 to January 2022. First, in the first week of September, both students and teachers participated in the questionnaire Then the interviews conducted in the second week for teachers and students were complements for the questionnaires. The teacher is the instructor and leader of the lesson; the student is the center of learning. Therefore, the author hopes to further clarify the current teaching situation from the two aspects.
Furthermore, for the purpose of obtaining information about the current ability of high school students to express Chinese culture in English, the author tested the students' ability to express Chinese culture in English in the last week of September.
Finally, to test whether the integration of Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into high school English teaching had a positive impact on students' English language skills, the author carried out a teaching experiment. Before the experiment, the author chose the school's first monthly exam paper (see Appendix E) as a pretest to test whether there was a significant difference between the English scores of the two classes. From October 2021 to January 2022, a 16-week experiment was conducted to integrate Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into high school English classroom teaching. In the experimental class, English teaching was carried out with Chinese cultural ideological and political factors, while in the control class, teachers still carried out classroom teaching according to the traditional teaching methods. Because the textbook used by high school students in Fuzhou City, Jiangxi Province is Senior English for China (2019) published by P People's Education Press. Therefore, the author chose 8 units from Compulsory Book1 and Compulsory Book 2 as the content of the teaching experiment. The specific details are shown in Table 3-4. After the teaching experiment, the final paper was used as the post-test paper (See Appendix F) after the experiment. Finally, six students from the experimental class participated in the post-experimental interview.
Table 3-4 Teaching Contents
Week 1 - Week 2 Teenage Life
Week 3 - Week 4 Travelling Around
Week 5 - Week 6 Sports and Fitness
Week 7 - Week 8 Natural Disasters
Week 9 - Week 10 Languages Around the World
Week 11 - Week 12 Cultural Heritage
Week 13 - Week 14 Wildlife Protection
Week 15 - Week 16 The Internet
3.4.2Teaching Experiment Cases
Zhang Hongling (2007), Jia Shaoning & Jia Qianqian (2009) put forward common teaching principles for infiltrating Chinese culture, covering the principles of differentiation and comparison, relevance, progressiveness, systematicity, practicality, and interest. Based on the actual teaching conditions and the existing level of students in the experimental class, there are four main principles to integrate the teaching of Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into the experimental class: first, the principle of systematic, second, the principle of moderation, third, the principle of relevance, and fourth, the principle of contrast. According to these four principles, the author carries out teaching design on the basis of the suggestions on cultural knowledge teaching methods put forward by NECS (2017).
Table 3-4 Cultural Teaching Methods of NECS (2017)
1.Combined with the content of the textbook, help students further understand the cultural background knowledge of British and American countries;
2.Provide background information and design relevant situations for consolidation and communicative practice;
3.Recommend relevant topic reading materials to students and organize rich and diverse activities;
4.Combine with extracurricular reading to create a cultural environment. Cultural theme composition competition, knowledge competition, keynote speech, English drama performance and poetry reading competition can be carried out;
(To be continued)
5.Properly carry out fellowship activities with foreign schools and students to improve students' language skills and cross-cultural communicative competence. In addition, teachers can also set up school-based courses and carry out special cultural teaching.
This study conducted numerous experiments on the integration of Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into English teaching in high school. The author selects the following two teaching cases of the integration of Chinese cultural ideological and political elements, and adopts the overall unit teaching design under the guidance of the big concept advocated by NECS (2017).
Table 3-5 Teaching Case 1
Book 1 Unit 2 Travelling Around
Period 1 Listening and Speaking
Thematic Context: Human and Self --- Life and learning
Teaching Type: Listening and Speaking Class
Teaching Time： 45 minutes
Discourse Type: Dialogues
The topic context of the text in this lesson is human and self, the topic group is life and learning, and the content of the topic context is to travel and vacation in different countries. The theme of this part is “travel preparation”. The contents are: first, present the pictures of scenic spots and the listed questions. Second, listen to a dialogue about travel and get the specific information in the dialogue. Third, let students make travel plans.
The whole text is a dialogue. Meilin and Paul discussed their travel plans. In the dialogue, they describe the preparations before the trip. Moreover, the text materials are authentic, and there are many subject words ad sentence patterns that students can use for oral expression, which permeates the cultivation of students' communicative ability and personal planning.
The purpose of the full text is to show students what preparations they need to make before a trip, such as getting a passport, research, local weather, and booking a hotel, and to provide a language model for later students to make their own travel plans.
Analysis of Students
The teaching object of this course is the first-grade experimental class of Linchuan No. 1 Middle School. The students' listening ability is slightly higher than their oral ability. They have basically mastered listening skills and developed listening strategies. Through the content of this unit, students are able to express some vocabulary related to making travel plans, but there are still some shortcomings. Therefore, in the context of the unit “Traveling Around”, this lesson focuses on the theme of “talking about making travel plans”. Through effective listening input and oral model dialogues, students perceive and understand the language, acquire and organize information, summarize and integrate what they have learned, and finally create situations that encourage them to use what they have learned and their knowledge of the language to describe their travel plans.
1.Language Knowledge: be able to master the words and phrases about travel preparation
2.Language Ability: be able to use the listening strategy of positioning keywords to understand a dialogue about travel planning and accurately obtain the details of the dialogue.
3.Thinking Quality: Be able to develop students' creative thinking through the formulation of travel plans.
4.Cultural Awareness: be able to use the learned content and language to formulate the travel plan of Tang Xianzu Drama Festival. So as to carry forward Chinese fine traditional culture and strengthen cultural self-confidence.
Step 1: Lead-in 5 minutes
Teaching level: perception and attention in learning and comprehension activities.
Students' activities Teachers' activities Purpose Effect evaluation
Share some pictures on the PPT and ask students. Shows some pictures about sights to help students learn about words for listening. This step aims to arouse Ss' interest and makes them relaxed. Students can say the corresponding English words by watching scenic spot pictures and proverbs
1.There is a saying written by Dong Qichang in Ming Dynasty that it's better to walk millions of miles than to read millions of books. How do you understand it?
2.If you have the chance to travel anywhere in the world, where will you go?
3.What do you need to do to prepare for the trip?
Step 2: Listening 20 minutes
Teaching level: acquisition and sorting, generalization and summary of learning and comprehension activities.
Students' activities Teachers' activities Purpose Effect evaluation
1.Read the questions of the listening material, choose the correct answers and predict the content of it. Creates a context and leads in the topic: Meilin and Paul are talking about the coming holiday.
Show Ss some questions and require them to choose the right answers. Create situations,
introduce topics, guide students to focus on key words of questions, predict listening text content, and train students' pre- listening prediction skills. Students can focus on the key words of the problem and predict the content of the listening text.
2. Listen to the second part of the conversation and
answer the questions. Plays the recording and instructs Ss to use listening strategies--- locating key words to get the main idea and answer the questions to get the information of Paul. Carry out listening activities in the theme context, guide students to focus on questions and use the listening strategy of positioning keywords to
obtain Paul's travel plan details and train their listening skills. Students can use listening strategies to understand the dialogue and
(To be continued)
3. Listen to the whole Asks students to get the Provide language Students can hear
tape again and fill in expressions about travel support for making the missing words
the table. preparation travel plans about travel
4. Read aloud the Presents listening material Let students perceive Students can pay
dialogue and find out of the dialogue and ask the dialogue, pay attention to,
the phrases students to read it aloud. attention to the phrases remember and
describing travel Guides Ss to summarize the expressing the travel understand these
preparations. phrases describing travel plan, and prepare for expressions.
preparations. the next language
Step 3: Talking 15 minutes
Teaching level: internalization of applied practice activities.
Students' activities Teachers' activities Purpose Effect evaluation
1. Sum up: How to make a travel plan? Helps them to make a summary. Deepen their memory of travel planning Students can make a summary successfully.
2. Choose a travel destination and think about what you would do to prepare to travel there. Inspires students to use some phrases they have learned to make a travel plan by themselves. This step aims to internalize and consolidate the
language knowledge and improve their oral
expression. Students can make the travel plan by using the
expressions they have learned.
Choose a travel destination and think about what you would do to prepare to travel there.
Where: JiuZhaiGou, China
Why famous: Amazing waterfalls, colorful lakes, beautiful mountains
Best time to visit: April / May or September / October.
Step 4: Homework 5 mins
Students' activities Teachers' activities Purpose Effect evaluation
Watch a video of Tang Xianzu International Drama Festival and then make a travel plan of it. Including:
geographical position, why famous, cultural features and so on. Presents homework: Requires students to share their travel plan in class. Further consolidate,
internalize and expand the language knowledge and topic knowledge learned in this class. Cultivate
students' logical thinking and creative thinking, deepen students'
understanding of Chinese culture, stimulate their sense of identity with Chinese culture and enhance cultural self-confidence. Students can use the knowledge learned in this lesson to make travel plans, identify with
Chinese excellent culture and establish cultural self-confidence.
Table 3-6 Teaching Case 2
Book 1 Unit 3 Sports and Fitness
Period 2 Reading and Thinking: Living Legends
Thematic Context: Human and Society --- Literature, Art and Sports
Teaching Type: Reading and Writing class
Teaching Time： 45 minutes
Discourse Type: Magazine Article -- Introduction to People
The topic context of the text in this lesson is people and society, the theme group is literature, art and sports, and the content of the theme context is sports activities, large-scale sports events, sports and health, and sports spirit. This article is an introduction about two living legends at home and abroad, Lang Ping and Michael Jordan. The situation set at the beginning leads students to read purposefully in the tone of a magazine, and judges from the two dimensions of “master” in professional development and “set a good example” in social impact, so that students can think at the same time in the process of reading, that is, they need to recommend the output of “living legend” after reading.
In terms of language expression, this paper uses parallelism, examples, comparison, personification, direct quotation and other means to vividly, vividly and concretely describe the factual information and reflect the character and spiritual quality of the characters. The article is well organized and uses the appropriate structure and transitional sentences to better express the theme meaning.
Analysis of Students
This course is taught to students in the experimental class. The students' language knowledge base is relatively weak, and their English thinking and expression skills need to be strengthened. However, they have a certain accumulation of knowledge, can make preliminary judgments about things, and their world view is being formed. Teachers should actively guide them to achieve the purpose of moral education through subject learning.
After studying in this lesson, students will be able to:
1.Sort out and summarize the factual information about the identity and achievements of Lang Ping and Jordan;
2.Learn and use inferential reading skills to summarize Lang Ping's spiritual qualities of overcoming difficulties and overcoming difficulties in the 2015 World Cup. Analyze and explain the description of Jordan's game scene, understand Jordan's attitude towards failure in the direct quotation, and deeply feel Jordan's exquisite skills and indomitable strong will. Summarize the characteristics of Sports Legends;
3.According to the connotation of “living legend in sports” in the text, select the sports legend in your heart to write in the new situation and form critical thinking.
Teaching Key Points and Difficult Points
Guide students to study the text and sort through the information to understand the professional heights and social impact of Lang Ping and Michael Jordan. Learn and apply inferential reading skills to demonstrate and summarize the outstanding spiritual qualities of Lang Ping and Jordan. And write their own living legends to deepen their understanding of sportsmanship.
Step 1 Lead-in 3 minutes
Students' activities Teachers' activities Purpose Core literacy
Watch a video and then answer the questions 1.Plays the video of “Waka Waka” and asks students what is the theme of the song.
2.Then introduces the definition of “legend” and “living legend”. Play videos related to the theme song of the world cup in South Africa to stimulate students' interest and let them guess the theme of reading. Cultural awareness:
Understand the world
Step 2 Pre-reading 5 minutes
Teaching level: perception and attention in learning and comprehension activities.
Students' activities Teachers' activities Purpose Core literacy
1.Read the title and the picture to predict where we can find the text and what the text might be about. Introduces the writing requirements of
magazines By reading titles and pictures, students can be inspired to think and predict the text content, so as to transition to discourse reading with problems. Language competence: prediction using
2.Skim and find out what has been talked about in the passage. asks students to skim the passage quickly in 3 minutes and then select and match the key words to where they find the
information. Read as a whole and quickly to obtain factual information: Lang
Ping's identity, Lang Ping's sports
sports events as
extraordinary basketball skills, Jordan's
willpower and Jordan's public welfare spirit. Language ability: read the character introduction text to obtain
information, and output according to the text through the real context. Learning ability: be able to output the learned knowledge in the real language environment to achieve the purpose of knowledge transfer.
Step 3 While- reading 20 minutes
Teaching level: application practice in learning and comprehension activities.
Students' activities Teachers' activities Purpose Core literacy
Ss read the text about Lang Ping and Michael Jordan for information to answer main ideas and details. Explains the
rules of the tasks to the students and gives
examples. 1.Learn and train speculative reading skills through practice;
2.Get information about
Lang Ping's identity achievements and
Jordan's basketball skills Language ability: be able to retell
according to the relevant information and brackets in the text, express them in the above parts, and
(To be continued)
3. Analyze, summarize and experience the extraordinary achievements and
superb basketball skills of Lang Ping and Jordan as legends. convert flexibly.
Step 4 Post-reading 12 minutes
Teaching level: application practice in learning and comprehension activities.
Students' activities Teachers'
activities Purpose Core literacy
1.Based on what we have Thinking quality:
read and found out, Ss Transfer from Lang Ping arouse students'
choose a legend of sports instructs Ss and Michael Jordan to the discussion and
from the cards given or while they are rest of the sports workers, thinking through
by their own knowledge discussing and and let the students use positive and negative
and give the reasons. choosing their the evaluation criteria to examples, express
legends. transfer to the rest of the their personal views,
people. and achieve the effect
of moral education.
2. Master some writing shows some Language ability: be
structures and skills useful Develop students' writing able to write
provided by teacher. expressions to skills according to the
students. relevant information.
Step 5 Assignment and Summarize 5 minutes
Teaching level: application practice in learning and comprehension activities.
Teachers' Students' activities
(To be continued)
Ss go through what they have learned in this class together with teacher. Summarizes what we have learned in this class and assign the homework. After the class discussion, the students formed a certain thinking, and let the students further sort out their ideas and refine their language through writing. Learning ability: from reading to speaking and then to writing, all-round exercise
Based on the theme of this unit, who would you choose as another “living legend” for our country?
Unit 3 Sports and Fitness
Living Legends (Writing Tips)
What Structure will you use?
1.bring glory and honor
to the country
3.loved by fans
4.saved many people's life/
5.make a great breakthrough
in his/her field
1.As a... As a... As...a...
2.be known as “Air Jordan” “Iron hammer”
3.Use transitional sentence
4.Use a quotation
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion
In this part, a further discussion of the statistic results of the research is revealed as follows. The results are analyzed by using SPSS. The three research questions will be answered through analysis and discussion of the research results.
4.1 Analysis and Discussion of Current Situation of Chinese Culture Teaching
In this section, questionnaires and interviews with teachers and students will be analyzed to understand the current status of Chinese culture teaching.
4.1.1Students' Questionnaires Results and Analysis
The questionnaire administered to the students consisted of five sections, the basic description of which is given in Chapter 3. In this Chapter we will discuss each of these details and summarize them as follows.
Table 4-1 The Attitude Towards Chinese Culture in General for Students
Question N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.
1. I am willing to accept integrate ideological and political education 100 1 5 3.82 1.104
into English courses.
2. I think that the application of “Ideological and Political
Education” in English teaching can make me experience the relevance 100 1
43 5 4.24 .922
(To be continued)
Question N Minimum Maximum Mean
of Chinese cultural spirit and
socialist core values in the midst of
cultural differences, and help to establish cultural self-awareness and cultural self-confidence and a correct value system.
Overall mean 100 1 5 4.03 .843
From the Table 4-1, the average score is 4.03 when asked about their attitude toward learning Chinese culture in English classes, which means that 80% of students have a very positive attitude towards learning Chinese culture in English class. Most students think that learning Chinese cultural ideological and political elements is very important, which is conducive to understanding the practical significance of Chinese cultural spirit and socialist core values in cultural differences, helping to establish cultural consciousness and cultural self-confidence, and establishing a correct value system.
Table 4-2 The Necessity of Chinese and Target Language Culture Teaching in English Teaching
Question N Minimum Maximum Mean
(To be continued)
Question N Minimum Maximum Std.
Overall mean 100 1.5 5 3.84 .834
According to Table 4-2, we can learn that when students were asked about teaching culture in English language teaching, the overall mean was 3.84, which means that students showed a high level of interest and identification with both the target language culture and Chinese culture. However, from the table we can also see a phenomenon that the score of attitudes toward the target language and culture is 3.69, while the score of attitudes toward learning Chinese culture is 3.99, which is 0.3 higher than the score of attitudes toward the target language and culture. The author believes that this is because the prosperity and development of China makes all Chinese people feel proud and further inspires patriotic enthusiasm. It is well known that a strong sense of family and country is an important characteristic of Chinese culture. Patriotism is a deep and enduring tradition of the Chinese nation. It is the core of the Chinese national spirit and the firm belief of all Chinese people, giving them a common sense of belonging. For this reason, an increasing number of students are becoming aware of the importance of Chinese culture.
Table 4-3 The Influence of Integrating Chinese Culture on English Learning
Std. Question N Minimum Maximum Mean
5.I think that mastering more English
expressions about Chinese
traditional festivals, historical sites,
folk costumes, revolutionary culture 100 1 5 3.99 .916
and advanced culture will help me
improve my confidence in English
6.I think that teachers who teach
100 1 5 3.78 .927 more background knowledge of
(To be continued)
Question N Minimum Maximum Mean
Chinese cultural ideological and
political elements in class will help
me to compare British and
American cultures, and then help me learn English.
7.I think high school students have
the responsibility to spread Chinese
culture, so it is necessary to master
Table 4-4 Chinese Culture Input in English Teaching in High School for Students
Question N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.
9. I think the high school English materials used at this stage contain sufficient knowledge of Chinese 100 1 5 2.94 .874
10. cultural ideological and political elements.
In my English study, I often involve introducing the knowledge and expression of Ideological and 100 1 5 2.97 .989
13. political elements of Chinese culture.
I often read English extracurricular books about Chinese cultural 100 1 5 2.51 1.030
15. ideological and political elements.
High school English assignments
(exercises) often involve Chinese cultural ideological and political 100 1 5 3.28 1.035
17. elements or express Chinese cultural ideological and political elements in English.
High school English test papers often involve Chinese cultural ideological and political elements 100 1 5 3.24 1.016
or express Chinese cultural ideological and political elements in English.
Overall mean 100 1.4 4.4 2.99 .602
In this section, there are five questions. Such issues can test the current status of Chinese cultural input in high school English teaching. From the data, we can know that the average score is 2.99, which means that students are uncertain about whether there is enough Chinese cultural input in English language teaching or do not think there is enough. Except for school
English assignments (exercises) and test papers that often involve Chinese cultural ideological and political elements or express Chinese cultural ideological and political elements in English (score of 3.28 for exercises and 3.24 for test papers). The reason for the high scores of these two components is that today's examination standards have gradually begun to value cross-cultural communication skills, especially their native culture. However, the input of Chinese culture in textbooks, English extracurricular reading books, homework (exercises), and daily instruction is inadequate. English extra-curricular reading books related to Chinese culture scored the lowest, at 2.51. In conclusion, the current status of teaching Chinese culture is not satisfactory.
Table 4-5 Target Culture Input in English Teaching of High School for Students
Question N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.
8. I think the high school English materials used at this stage contain enough cultural knowledge of the target language. 100 1 5 2.99 .969
11. I often involve introducing
knowledge of the target language 100 1 5 3.63 1.002
culture in my English learning.
12. I often read English extracurricular books about the target language. 100 1 5 2.66 1.075
14. The cultural knowledge of the target language is often involved in senior high school English homework (practice). 100 1 5 3.54 .904
16. The knowledge of target language
culture is often involved in senior 100 1 5 3.52 1.01
high school English test papers.
Overall mean 100 1.8 4.6 3.27 .587
According to Table 4-5, we can see the result is slightly higher than the Chinese culture. The overall means of this part is 3.27, which means, compared with Chinese culture, the input of target language culture is quite sufficient in the process of English learning. We can see that the role of textbooks in teaching is negative (the score of textbooks is 2.99) and the score of supplementary reading is 2.66, so we can infer students are not actively reading more outside of class time. Fortunately, teachers dominate the teaching of the target language and culture, with the highest score of 3.63 for the performance of the target language and culture. Regarding the representation of target language culture in practice and examinations, the results are generally consistent with Table 4-4.
Based on the three dimensions of the student questionnaire, the following issues are reflected. First, most high school students have a strong interest and positive attitude toward acquiring Chinese cultural knowledge in the English classroom, which provides a good prerequisite for teachers to input cultural knowledge in the classroom. Second, most high school students recognize that it is necessary to input Chinese cultural knowledge in high school English teaching and affirm that mastering Chinese cultural knowledge has a positive impact on English learning. Therefore, they need to develop an awareness of spreading good Chinese culture in the process of cross-cultural communication. Third, we found that both Chinese culture and target language culture had a high percentage of participation in the exercises and tests. However, the percentage of cultural content in textbooks and extracurricular reading was not high. More importantly, teachers' knowledge of Chinese culture was also relatively inadequate.
4.1.2Teachers' Questionnaires Results and Analysis
The purpose of this paper is to explore the current situation of the integration of Chinese culture into senior high school English teaching in the context of curriculum ideological and political education. However, collecting data on students alone is not enough to convince. Therefore, this section will analyze and explain the teacher's data, and the dimensions are basically the same as the student questionnaire.
Table 4-6 Teachers' Self-evaluation of the Competence to Express Chinese Culture
Question N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.
1.I think enriching my mother tongue cultural knowledge can promote the smooth progress of Chinese cultural teaching.
2.I often find it difficult to express 16 1 5 4.25 1.125
simple Chinese culture and customs in English 16 1 5 3.31 1.195
Overall mean 16 2 5 3.78 .948
The first part is the teachers' self-evaluation of their ability to express Chinese culture in English. As we can know from Tables 4-6, the overall mean value of Q1 and Q2 is 3.78, indicating that most teachers are able to teach Chinese culture in high school English classrooms. For the first question, nearly 80% of the teachers thought that enriching their knowledge of their native culture could facilitate the smooth teaching of Chinese culture in high school English. For the second question, 18.8% of the teachers still chose “strongly agree”. In view of this, the data provided reveal that teachers' understanding of Chinese culture and their expression in English should still be improved.
Table 4-7 The Attitude towards Chinese Culture in General for Teachers
Question N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.
3. I think it is very necessary to spread
excellent Chinese culture to the outside world when communicating with foreigners. 16 3 5 4.81 .544
4. I hold that fostering high school
students' consciousness of 16 4 5 4.81 .403
transmitting Chinese culture to 50
(To be continued)
Question N Minimum Maximum Mean Deviation
overseas people and their attitudes
about different cultures is very
crucial in teaching English in high
5. I think excellent Chinese culture
can play a positive role in English 16 3 5 4.69 .602
Overall mean 16 3.67 5 4.77 .948
From the table, we can see that the average value is generally 4.77, which is enough to prove that teachers believe it is necessary to spread Chinese excellent culture through cross-cultural communication. Cultivating a sense of Chinese cultural communication and attitudes toward different cultures are also important. Moreover, most teachers agree that integrating Chinese culture into high school English teaching can produce positive results. Although there are still a few teachers that are skeptical or uncertain about the promotion of Chinese culture and target language culture, there is ample evidence of the significance of Chinese culture.
Table 4-8 The Necessity of Chinese and Target Language Culture Teaching in English Teaching
Std. Question N Minimum Maximum Mean
6. I think it is necessary to increase
the English expression of teaching
knowledge containing ideological and political elements of Chinese culture in the process of English teaching. 16 3 5 4.50 .730
7. I think it is necessary to add the 16 2 5 4.56 .814
(To be continued) Std.
Question N Minimum Maximum Mean
Deviation knowledge of target language culture to senior high school
Overall mean 16 2.5 5 4.53 .718
As for Tables 4-8, it focuses on testing teachers' attitudes concerning the necessity of teaching Chinese and target language culture in English class. According to the data, we can see that the overall mean value is 4.53, demonstrating that almost all of them value the teaching of culture in English language teaching, which shows that the view that culture teaching is an important part of foreign language teaching is highly agreed and recognized.
Table 4-9 Chinese Culture and Target Language Culture Teaching Time
Question N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.
8. According to the school's teaching plan and the arrangement of teaching tasks, I have enough time to carry out cultural teaching. 16 1 5 2.50 1.366
Overall mean 16 1 5 2.50 1.366
The eighth question asks teachers whether they have enough time to teach culture according to the school's teaching plan and teaching task schedule. As can be seen from the data, high school English classes do not spend enough time teaching culture. The author believes that the main reason is the heavy learning tasks at the high school level.
Table 4-10 Chinese Culture Input in English Teaching in High School for Teachers
Question N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.
9. In my English teaching, I often
involve introducing the knowledge
of Ideological and political 16 2 5 3.13 .885
elements of Chinese culture and
their English expression.
12. I think the high school English
textbooks used by students at this
16 3 5 3.39 .704
stage contain enough knowledge of
13. I often encourage students to read
English extracurricular books about
16 3 5 3.25 .775
Chinese cultural ideological and
15. High school English assignments
(exercises) often involve Chinese
cultural ideological and political
16 1 5 3.69 1.124
elements or express Chinese
cultural ideological and political
elements in English.
17. High school English test papers
often involve Chinese cultural
ideological and political elements
16 1 5 3.58 1.167
or express Chinese cultural
ideological and political elements in
Overall mean 16 2.2 5 3.41 .735
It can be seen from Table 4-10 that the overall average score of Chinese cultural input in high school English teaching is 3.41. It demonstrates the fact that the present condition of Chinese cultural input in high school English teaching is not good. We can see that the project with the highest score is to encourage students to read English extracurricular books about
Chinese culture and the mean score is 3.25. It means teachers usually ask students to broaden their cultural knowledge by reading extracurricular studies such as newspapers and magazines, however, it is strange that in the student questionnaire data, student's mean score on extracurricular reading (See Table 4-5) is 2.51, which is significantly different from the results obtained by the teacher data. And the score of Chinese culture in textbooks is the lowest, with an average score of only 3.69. As for the frequency of Chinese culture in practice and examination, from the perspective of teachers, Chinese culture appears more frequently in exercises and examinations, which is in line with the results of student questionnaires. It can be seen that the direction of English examination is no longer confined to language knowledge, but began to focus on students' cultural awareness and language use ability.
Table 4-11 Target Culture Input in English Teaching in High School for Teachers
Question N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.
10. I often involve introducing
knowledge of the target language 16 3 5 4.44 .629
culture in my English teaching.
11. I think the high school English materials used at this stage contain enough cultural knowledge of the target language. 16 3 5 4.44 .629
14. I often encourage students to read
English extracurricular books about 16 3 5 4.25 .775
the target language.
16. The cultural knowledge of the target language is often involved in senior high school English homework (practice). 16 1 5 3.81 1.167
18. The knowledge of target language
culture is often involved in senior 16 1 5 4.25 1.000
high school English test papers.
Overall mean 16 3 5 4.24 .562
Table 4-11displays the state of target culture input in high school English teaching. The overall average is 4.24, which is 0.83 points higher than the Chinese cultural input shown in Table 4-10. This shows that compared with the integration of Chinese culture into high school English teaching, they are relatively satisfied with the teaching status of the target language culture. In short, in the process of importing the target language and culture into English teaching, teachers still play the most important role.
Through the three dimensions of the teacher questionnaire, we can draw the following conclusions. First, most senior high school English teachers affirm the importance of integrating Chinese culture into senior high school English teaching. They all believe that the role of Chinese culture in English teaching can not only improve students' cross-cultural communicative competence, but also help spread Chinese culture to the world. Second, the ability to express Chinese in English for English teachers needs to be improved. More than half of the teachers are not particularly satisfied with their current English expression ability of Chinese culture, and only a few teachers are more satisfied. The majority of teachers felt the necessity to improve themselves, which shows that teachers want to improve their cultural teaching ability and teachers' professional quality. Third, from the survey results, teachers generally believe that Chinese culture is slightly insufficient in teaching materials, tests and practice contents, and the time used for culture teaching is also insufficient. Therefore, students cannot systematically organize and absorb knowledge. Therefore, cultural content should be fully integrated into teaching activities.
4.1.3Analysis of Teachers' Interviews
The analysis of the data from the questionnaires and teaching materials basically reflected the current situation and reasons for Chinese cultural input in English language teaching. Then the author interviewed three English teachers from the first year of senior high school to further explore the current situation of Chinese culture teaching, and to further explore the influencing factors and feasible suggestions.
The outline of the teachers' interview questions is as follows:
(1)Have you ever heard of the Curriculum Ideological and Political Education? Please talk about your knowledge or understanding of Curriculum Ideological and Political 55
(2)Through the questionnaire, it is found that Chinese culture is insufficiently integrated in our English teaching. What do you think are the reasons for this situation?
(3)How do your students perform in the knowledge and expression of Chinese culture? What do you think the reasons are?
(4)How did you choose to explain the cultural content of the textbook during the teaching? Will you consciously emphasize the part of Chinese culture? (The selected part and the way of explanation)
As for the first question, two of the teachers said that they have never heard about the Ideological and Political Education system. Teacher 3 said: “Teacher 3 says. I think it's about exposing students to ideological and political education in other subjects.”
In response to the second question, Teacher 1 said, “I think teaching culture is more important, and the new textbook is richer in Chinese culture compared to the old one. And I think there are three main points. The first is the problem of materials. Teachers have relatively few cultural materials, and there are relatively few textbooks and reference books. This is the first problem. Second, the attention given by students to their cultural classes is not very well, because culture is rather intangible. The third is that the teacher will have some shortcomings in the process of preparation.” Teacher 2 said: “The main reason comes from the pressure of teaching to prepare for the college entrance examination, so teachers will neglect teaching culture, and it is not very clear how to test Chinese culture, so we tend to neglect the teaching of Chinese culture in our normal teaching. If I encounter Chinese culture, sometimes I slip past it.” Teacher 3 said: “In the actual teaching process, more attention is paid to the teaching of grammar and vocabulary, and the students' cultural awareness is not deliberately cultivated. In the teaching process, I did not often instill the knowledge of Chinese culture into the students.
The third question is their perceptions of the students' performance in terms of their knowledge and expression of Chinese culture. Teacher 1said: “I feel that most students may have difficulty expressing Chinese culture clearly due to their limited knowledge of vocabulary and grammar.” Teacher 2 said: “I think the students' ability to express Chinese culture in English is poor, because Chinese culture is extensive and profound, especially
Chinese traditional culture. The translation of Chinese culture exceeds the real English level of high school students. Therefore, students often translate directly and only reflect the literal meaning.” And Teacher 3 said: “Due to the heavy daily courses, teachers will not expand the English expression of Chinese culture, and students lack the opportunity to express Chinese culture, because they have no opportunity to express Chinese culture in English in their daily life, which further leads to their poor expression ability.”
The last question is how to choose what to teach in the materials and whether the input of Chinese culture will be emphasized. Teacher 1 said: “If the teaching content involves Chinese culture, I usually find relevant pictures and videos on the Internet in advance and show them to students before learning the course, but I just show them and don't explain too much. Regarding the integration of Chinese culture into high school English teaching, my suggestion is that, in addition to the daily integration of teaching, we can also use study periods to hold such Chinese cultural expression competitions throughout the school to increase students' interest in learning about Chinese culture in English classes.” Teacher 2 said: “I only teach the parts of Chinese culture mentioned in the textbook. If I have free time, I mainly give my students exercises to reinforce their knowledge of the language. Teachers should also focus on teaching culture instead of just test scores. They have to teach both for exams and in conjunction with cultural teaching to learn more about traditional Chinese culture, and lay a good foundation for students' future cross-cultural communication, especially spreading Chinese culture. Only after understanding and learning can they express themselves.” Teacher 3 said: “I often use comparative methods to explain cultural content in order to broaden students' knowledge. We have to study the textbook in depth because the students' source of knowledge is mainly from the textbook, and the new textbook we are using now has a rich Chinese and Western culture compared with the old one before.”
According to the teachers' answers to the four questions in the interview, the author can draw the following conclusions. Firstly, the high school teacher group lacks understanding of the curriculum ideological and political system. Second, some teachers believe that the main reasons for the insufficient integration of Chinese culture into high school English courses are that students, parents, and teachers focus on performance and neglect cultural teaching. Furthermore, the heavy workload of high school also leads to insufficient time for teachers to
carry out cultural teaching. Third, teachers generally believe that students' ability to express Chinese culture in English is insufficient. The main reasons for this are the lack of vocabulary, the lack of a clear understanding of Chinese culture, etc. Fourth, the teachers said that they would not take the initiative to add teaching content of Chinese culture except for textbooks that involve Chinese culture. Through the interview, the author has a better understanding of the integration of Chinese culture into the high school English classroom, which provides a basis for the teaching experiment.
4.1.4Analysis of Students' Interviews
In addition to teachers' interviews, the author also conducted students' interviews. Six students from the experimental class participated in the interviews both before and after the experiment. Before the experiment, the main purpose of the interview is the same as the teachers' interviews. After the experiment, the main purpose is to understand the effect of integrating Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into high school English teaching.
The outline of students' interviews is as follows:
(1)Have you ever been exposed to the ideological and political concept of the course in English class?
(2)What do you think of the teacher's explanation of Chinese culture in class?
(3)Are you willing to learn some Chinese culture background and English expressions in English class?
(4)Do you have any suggestions and opinions on how to better integrate Chinese culture into English classroom?
As for the first question, five of the students said they didn't know what is Ideological and Political Course. Student 3 said: “I think the Ideological and Political Course refers to ideological and political education, and the English teacher is our head teacher, so he will give us ideological education in class meetings, but there are not many mentions in English.”
As for the second question, Student 1 said: “Our English teacher is Mr. Zhu. He teaches very well. I think Mr. Zhu often talks about Chinese culture in our class, because sometimes when he teaches us words, Mr. Zhu will teach us some expressions of proverbs and let us 58
recite them so that we can use them in our compositions. For example, we learned the English expression of the proverb “a swallow can't make a summer” recently. I think it's still very interesting.” Student 2 said: “If the teacher thought of it, he would say something, and the degree is not very deep. It may activate the atmosphere of the classroom. At that time, we would laugh. If some people are interested in these aspects, they can talk to the teacher.” Student 6 said: “In English class, our teacher will talk to us about Chinese culture, but the share is small. The oral way is mainly Chinese. Moreover, I feel that the reading discourse we usually use is mainly the culture of English-speaking countries. We have done a lot of reading and understanding about western culture, such as western table manners and western festivals. Chinese culture will also be involved in the exercise, but the frequency is not good. For example, the word filling part of yesterday's exercise said Xi'an city wall.”
As for the third question, Student 2 said: “I don't think it's meaningful, because the exam won't specifically test these contents. If we spend time learning this content, our learning task will be even heavier. I think it's good for teachers to occasionally mention Chinese culture. We should still focus on language knowledge and improve scores.” Student 3 said: “I agree. Because I think learning some Chinese culture and English expressions can promote my English learning. Now, we do a lot of reading comprehension in the test papers are related to the knowledge of Chinese culture. If I am good at Chinese history and geography, understand the astronomy, geography, mountains and rivers of our motherland, and know his English expression, it will be easy for me to do relevant reading and understanding.” Student 4 said: “I am willing to listen to the teacher talk about Chinese culture in English class. I am a super fan of Chinese history, so if the teacher can speak some English expressions about Chinese history, I will be more energetic to learn English.” Student 5 said: “I think we can speak some Chinese cultural knowledge in English class, which is also a good exercise for our listening and oral expression.”
The last question was to collect some ideas and suggestions from students on how to improve the current situation of Chinese cultural input in high school English teaching. Student1 said: “I think we have to start with ourselves, read more books on literature and history, and the most important thing is to lay a good foundation in English. English is a passport to the world. I don't want to encounter a scenic spot, we just know a piece of history
here, but not know what the English translation is, it is impossible to communicate with foreign friends, and it is difficult to proudly introduce our profound Chinese culture to them.” Student 1 said: “I suggest that Mr. Zhu should make full use of multimedia teaching equipment to show us the content of Chinese culture in a vivid, all-round and multifaceted way.” Student 3 said: “I think that Chinese culture doesn't involve much in the textbooks, vocabularies, and exercises that we usually learn. Maybe it's better to improve from these aspects.” Student 4 said: “The school can hold some English reading activities about Chinese culture to improve Chinese cultural knowledge through reading. It is also very interesting to hold study tours. The school can take us to cultural holy places such as dream seeking Peony Pavilion, Wang Anshi Memorial Hall and so on, so that we can feel Chinese culture in a real cultural environment.” Student 6 said: “sometimes, we can watch movies in the English evening self-study after the exam, but we all watch English movies. In fact, we can also watch English Documentaries about Chinese culture, such as Dunhuang and China on the Tip of the Tongue and so on. This technique can not only learn Chinese culture, but also adjust our intense study life.”
Based on the students' responses to the four questions in the interview, the author can draw the following conclusions. First, it is known that most students do not understand curriculum ideology and politics, it can be seen that the integration of curriculum ideology and politics into classroom teaching is not optimistic. Therefore, it will be of great use of integrating Chinese cultural ideology and politics elements into English classrooms.
Second, most of the students interviewed have a positive attitude towards the teacher explaining Chinese culture in class. However, the students all said that the level of Chinese cultural knowledge expressed in the English class was not deep, and the English expression of Chinese cultural knowledge mostly appeared in the vocabulary class and teachers who encounter uncommon knowledge of Chinese culture mainly use Chinese to express them.
Third, most students gave positive attitudes. In their view, studying Chinese culture in high school English classes can increase their interest in learning English, which is more beneficial to their understanding of Chinese cultural knowledge in the test papers.
Fourthly, when asked what better suggestions students have for integrating Chinese culture into English classroom, students express their views. One student thinks it is very
necessary to improve students' cultural literacy. And two students suggested taking part in study tours related to Chinese culture and watch English Documentaries of Chinese culture. Two other students put forward suggestions on teaching. They believe that teachers can make full use of multimedia teaching equipment and correspondingly increase some Chinese cultural knowledge in teaching materials, vocabulary and practice, so as to better integrate Chinese culture into their English learning process.
4.2Analysis and Discussion of Students' Ability to Express Chinese Culture in English
For the purpose of collecting information on high school students' English expression skills in Chinese culture, the researcher conducted a Chinese cultural ability test for both two classes of Grade one. A total of 100 test papers were recovered, with a recovery rate of 100%. There are two parts to the test paper. The test results were entered into SPSS software and spss22.0 for data processing, the answers of students are shown in the Table 4-12.
Table 4-12 Description of Students' Chinese Cultural Expression Ability Test Scores
Items Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Chinese -- English Translation 4 22 10.66 4.414
English -- Chinese Translation 8 28 18.26 4.954
Total average score 14 50 28.92 8.614
A description of the answers to each section is provided in order to present more detailed information about the students' ability to express Chinese culture in English, in conjunction with Table 4-12 and the students' specific responses.
Figure 4-1 Statistics of Chinese-English Translation
The first part is Chinese-English translation. There are 16 questions and 32 points in the Chinese-English translation part. As can be seen from Table 4-12, the average score of students' Chinese-English translation is 10.66, the standard deviation is 4.414, the maximum value is 22 and the minimum value is 4. In combination with the specific scores in Figure 4-1, We can find a polarizing trend in the accuracy of students' responses. The accuracy of paper cutting, the Lantern Festival and the Laba Festival was the highest, 64%, 63% and 63% respectively; the accuracy of Confucius, Chinese Dream and Journey to the West is in the middle, 51%, 50% and 47% respectively; the accuracy of terracotta warriors, Peking Opera, calligraphy and other words is very low. For example, the accuracy of Peking Opera is 9%, and most people translate it into “Beijing Opera”; the accuracy of terracotta warriors and horses is the lowest among the 16 words, only 4%. This shows that most students have a low mastery of English expressions of Chinese culture vocabulary and cannot reach the passing level. Only a few students have good Chinese culture Chinese-English translation ability.
Figure 4-2 Statistics of English- Chinese Translation
The second part is English-Chinese Translation. There are 16 questions and 32 points in the Chinese-English translation part. From Table 4-12, we can see that the average score of students' Chinese-English translation is 18.26, the standard deviation is 4.954, the maximum value is 28 and the minimum value is 8. This shows that most students are not familiar with the expression of Chinese culture in English and fail to reach the passing level. A very small number of students have demonstrated their advantages in this part of the test. According to Figure 4-2, we can see that the number of students who answered correctly in the 16 questions from high to low is as follows: A thousand-mile journey begins with the first step(Q17), Do not do to others what you do not want others do to you (Q20), The spirit of combating COVID-19 (Q27), Mogao Caves (Q24), Never too old to learn (Q25), Minor Snow (Q26), Lunar New Year's Eve (Q19), Grand Canal (Q21), Chinese dragon (Q32); A community with a shared future for mankind (Q29), Love me, love my dog(Q22), the Four Treasure of the Study (Q30), Steamed fish headed with chilies (Q31), The way of medium (Q18), the National People's Congress (Q23) and the pioneering spirit of the Red Boat (Q28). It can be concluded that for some English expressions whose meanings exist on the surface, it is easier for students to give their corresponding Chinese expressions, such as “A thousand-mile journey begins with the first step” and “Do not do to others what you do not want others do to you”. For some common and catchy English expressions, it is easier for students to give corresponding Chinese expressions, such as “Never too old to learn” and “Minor Snow”. However, judging from the test results of the students, the students have a poor grasp of some 63
vocabulary with strong Chinese cultural colors, such as “The pioneering spirit of the Red Boat” and “A community with a shared future for mankind”.
Generally speaking, it is obvious from Table 4-12 that the average score of the students' test is 28.92, and the average scores in the Chinese-English Translation part and the English-Chinese Translation part are 10.66, 18.26 respectively. Out of 100 test questions, the highest score was 50 and the lowest score was 14. This shows that students' Chinese culture English expression ability is insufficient. The standard deviations of the two parts are 4.414 and 4.954 respectively. This indicates that students performed better in English-Chinese than in Chinese-English on the Chinese Cultural English Expression Test.
4.3Analysis and Discussion on the Effect of Integrating Chinese Cultural Ideological and Political Elements into Senior High School English Teaching experiments
For the purpose of verifying that integrating Chinese cultural ideological and political elements in high school English teaching has an effect on students' English learning ability, tests and post students' interview were conducted.
4.3.1Analysis and Discussion of the Students' English Scores
In this section, the data will be analyzed by t-test and paired test for the experimental class as well as the control class.
184.108.40.206Comparison of English Learning Achievement Between Experimental Class and Control Class Before the Experiment
Before conducting the experiment of integrating elements of Chinese cultural ideology and politics into high school English teaching, the author tested the English of the two classes using the test papers of the first monthly school examination in order to check whether the English learning levels of the experimental and control classes were consistent.
Table 4-13 Descriptive Statistics on Pre-test of Experiment Class and Control Class
Class N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error. Mean
Score 1 (Overall) EC 50 69.79 13.904 1.966
CC 50 70.67 12.238 1.731
Score 2 (Reading) EC 50 34.00 6.547 .926
CC 50 33.55 6.740 .953
Score 3 (Cloze) EC 50 8.84 2.831 .400
CC 50 9.85 2.949 .417
Score 4 (Grammar) EC 50 8.19 2.830 .400
CC 50 7.74 3.081 .436
Score 5 (Writing) EC 50 19.58 5.821 .823
CC 50 18.59 5.677 .803
(EC = Experiment Class, CC = Control Class, N = Number)
Table 4-14 Independent Samples T-test on Pre-test of Experimental Class and Control Class
t-test for Equality of Means
t df Sig (2-tailed) Mean difference Std. Error difference
Score 1 (overall) -.336 98 .738 -.880 2.620
Score 2 (Reading) .339 98 .736 .450 1.329
Score 3 (Cloze) -1.747 98 .084 -1.010 .578
Score 4 (Grammar) .761 98 .449 .450 .591
Score 5 (Writing) .861 98 .391 .990 1.150
The results in Table 4-13 and Table 4-14 show that the average total score of the experimental class is 69.79 and the average total score of the control class is 70.67. The difference between the average scores of the two classes is 0.88. The significant value is 0.738, p > 0.05. It can also be seen from the Table 4-14 that there is no difference between the experimental class and the control class in the following aspects: Reading Comprehension, Cloze, Grammar and Writing, for the significance values are 0.736, 0.084, 0.449, 0.391, p > 0.05, indicating that there is no significant difference between the experimental class and
65 control class. With the scores of these four aspects, we can know that the English level of the two classes is basically the same.
220.127.116.11Comparison of English Learning Achievement Between Experimental Class and Control Class after the Experiment
After the experiment, the author conducted a post English test for both the control class and the experimental class. The test paper is the final English test paper of this school, and the question type is the same as the previous test paper.
Table 4-15 Descriptive Statistics on Post-test of Experiment Class and Control Class
Class N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error. Mean
Score 1 (Overall) EC 50 79.99 12.312 1.741
CC 50 71.62 11.573 1.637
Score 2 (Reading) EC 50 37.15 5.825 .824
CC 50 33.55 5.739 .812
Score 3 (Cloze) EC 50 9.98 1.857 .263
CC 50 9.46 2.022 .286
Score 4 (Grammar) EC 50 10.35 2.664 .377
CC 50 10.17 2.766 .391
Score 5 (Writing) EC 50 22.12 5.193 .734
CC 50 18.44 5.764 .815
(EC = Experiment Class, CC = Control Class, N = Number)
Table 4-16 Independent Samples T-test on Post-test of Experimental Class and Control Class
t-test for Equality of Means
t df Sig (2-tailed) Mean difference Std. Error difference
Score 1 (overall) 3.503 98 .001 8.370 2.390
Score 2 (Reading) 3.113 98 .002 3.600 1.156
Score 3 (Cloze) 1.339 98 .184 .520 .388
Score 4 (Grammar) .331 98 .741 .180 .543
Score 5 (Writing) 3.354 98 .001 3.680 1.097
In the post-test of the experiment, the results in Table 4-15 show that the average total score of the experimental class is 79.99 and the average total score of the control class is 71.62. The difference between the average scores of the two classes is 8.37. The average total score of English tests in the experimental class is significantly higher than that in the control class. The significant value is 0.001, p < 0.05, which means that after the experiment of integrating Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into English teaching, the English performance of the experimental class is significantly higher than that of the control class. Comparing the average scores of the two classes before and after the test, the experimental class has made progress, and the control class has basically no change.
To further analyze the difference between two classes, the author also conducted an independent sample t-test for the classification of question types between the two classes. Table 4-16 shows that no matter it is the experimental class or the control class, there is no significant difference between the two classes in terms of cloze and grammar in the content of the test paper. However, there are differences in the two aspects of reading comprehension and writing in the test paper between the experimental class and the control class, with significant values of 0.002 and 0.001, p < 0.05, indicating that the reading and writing levels of the experimental class are higher than those of the control group.
The author believes that the reason why the cloze and grammar questions in the English test content have no significant changes in the experimental class is that these two contents are related to English grammar. There is little correlation between the integration of Chinese culture and English grammar, so it does not contribute to the improvement of students' grammar performance. Although the teaching of Chinese and Western language characteristics will continue to appear in the classroom, there is no targeted learning of grammar questions, so there is no significant difference among the results of the experimental class and the control class.
18.104.22.168Comparison of English Learning Achievement before and after in the Experiment Class
Descriptive statistics and paired t-tests were conducted to verify whether there were differences in the English test scores of the experimental class before and after the experiment.
Table 4-17 Descriptive Statistics of the Pre-test and Post-test in the Experimental Class
Type N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error. Mean
Score 1 (Overall) Pre-test 50 69.79 13.904 1.966
Post- test 50 79.99 12.312 1.741
Score 2 (Reading) Pre-test 50 34.00 6.547 .926
Post- test 50 37.15 5.825 .824
Score 3 (Cloze) Pre-test 50 8.84 2.831 .400
Post- test 50 9.98 1.857 .263
Score 4 (Grammar) Pre-test 50 8.19 2.830 .400
Post- test 50 10.35 2.664 .377
Score 5 (Writing) Pre-test 50 19.58 5.821 .823
Post- test 50 22.12 5.193 .734
Table 4-18 Paired Samples T-test for Pre-test and Post-test in the Experimental Class
Error Mean t df Sig. (2-tailed)
Pair 1 Overall -10.200 16.737 2.367 -4.309 49 .000
Pair2 Reading -3.530 7.427 1.050 -3.361 49 .002
Pair3 Cloze -3.150 7.983 1.129 -2.790 49 .007
Pair4 Gramm -1.540 3.118 .441 -3.492 49 .001
Pair5 Writing -2.160 3.823 .541 -3.995 49 .000
According to Table 4-17 and Table 4-18, the post-test of overall English test scores increased by 10.2 as compared to the pre-test, and its significant difference (2-tailed) = 0.000 (p < 0.05). And the specific differences are reflected in these three aspects: Cloze, Grammar
and Writing, for the significance values are 0.002, 0.001, 0.000, p < 0.05, which are significantly different from the previous level, indicating that the integration of Chinese ideological and political cultural elements into senior high school English teaching has a positive effect of the experimental class in this experiment.
22.214.171.124Comparison of English Learning Achievement before and after in the Control Class
Descriptive statistics and paired t-tests were conducted to verify whether there were differences in the English test scores of the control class before and after the experiment.
Table 4-19 Descriptive Statistics of the Pre-test and Post-test in the Control Class
Class N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error. Mean
Score 1 (Overall) Pre-test 50 70.67 12.238 1.731
Post-test 50 71.62 11.573 1.637
Score 2 (Reading) Pre-test 50 33.55 6.740 .953
Post-test 50 33.55 5.739 .812
Score 3 (Cloze) Pre-test 50 9.85 2.949 .417
Post-test 50 9.46 2.022 .286
Score 4 (Grammar) Pre-test 50 7.74 3.081 .436
Post-test 50 10.17 2.766 .391
Score 5 (Writing) Pre-test 50 18.59 5.677 .803
Post-test 50 18.44 5.764 .815
Table 4-20 Paired Samples T-test for Pre-test and Post-test in the Control Class
Deviation Std. Error
Mean t df Sig. (2-tailed)
Pair 1 Overall -.950 13.480 1.906 -.498 49 .620
Pair2 Reading .000 7.491 1.059 .000 49 1.000
Pair3 Cloze .450 3.314 .469 .960 49 .342
Pair4 Grammar -2.430 3.747 .530 -4.586 49 .000
Pair5 Writing 1.140 7.619 1.078 1.058 49 .295
According to Table 4-19 and Table 4-20, the post-test of English test scores increased by 0.95 as compared to the pre-test, and its significant difference (2-tailed) = 0.620 (p > 0.05). And there are only differences in Grammar part, for its significance value is 0.000, less than 0.005. However, there are no differences in the following three aspects: Reading, Cloze and Writing, for the significance values are 1.000, 0.342, 0.259, p > 0.05, indicating that there was no significant increase of English test scores in the control class.
4.3.2Analysis of Students' Interview After Experiment
After the experiment, the author conducted post-experimental interviews with students. The interview questions are as follows:
(1)Have you changed your view on Curriculum Ideological and Political Education concept of the course since you accepted Chinese cultural ideological and political elements in English class?
(2)Have you improved your ability of expressing Chinese culture in English since you accepted Chinese cultural ideological and political elements teaching in class?
(3)Have you improved your English language ability since you accepted the integration of Chinese cultural ideological and political elements in English class?
The following are detailed information.
As for the first question, Student 1 said: “I think that the integration of Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into our English class has cultivated my critical thinking ability, and I am very happy to be able to feel the beauty of the motherland in English.” Student 4 said: “I actively support the integration of Chinese culture into our high school English classroom. I think our high school students should know more about our Chinese culture and actively master some English expressions about Chinese culture, which is conducive to establishing cultural self-confidence and telling stories that belong only to our China when communicating with foreign friends.”
As for the second question, Students 3 said: “I didn't know much about the English expressions of Chinese culture before, but now I have mastered the English expressions of Chinese culture and related sentence patterns. And I also performed in our school's New Year's performance of the English drama “The Monkey Fights the White Bone Spirit”. In the 70
process of preparing for the performance, my speaking ability has improved a lot and I feel proud to be able to perform the scenes from “Journey to the West” in English. As for the third question, student 6 said: “By now, I have studied English for 8 years, but I still can't express Chinese culture in English very well. Now I can fluently express the simple Chinese culture and traditional festival vocabulary and proverbs that my teacher taught me, such as Chinese New Year, Mid-Autumn Festival, and practice makes perfect. Moreover, these expressions can be used in writing essays related to Chinese culture in the exam. So, if the teacher spends time talking about Chinese culture, I can improve my ability to express Chinese culture in English.”
As for the third question, Student 2 said: “It guided me to understand the differences between Chinese and Western cultures correctly and I am very proud of our excellent Chinese culture. In the English speech contest held in my school, I introduced our traditional festival, the Spring Festival, which is coming up. In the process of preparing my speech, both my speaking and writing skills have been greatly improved and I have become more confident than before.” Student 5 said: “I think the integration of Chinese culture into the English classroom is quite interesting, and our English test will cover Chinese culture in reading and writing, so I think it will help me to accumulate some background knowledge of Chinese culture and corresponding English expressions in class, but not much in listening and grammar.”
After the experiment, the author conducts a post interview for students in the experimental class. The following are the findings. First, after incorporating Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into English teaching, most of the students have a better understanding of the concept of Curriculum Ideological and Political System. For example, when watching the video of China's rescue to other countries in the world during the epidemic, the students were in high spirits and proud of themselves as the children of the Chinese nation. Such ideological and political content not only made students feel the traditional virtue of “difficulties on one side, support from all sides”, but also carried forward China's excellent traditional culture, and strengthened their cultural self-confidence.
Second, most of the students think that after integrating Chinese culture into English teaching, they have improved their ability of expressing excellent Chinese culture in English.
And they also show that they are very confident to get good scores when they encounter content with Chinese culture in the English test. At the same time, students' values such as patriotism, love of hometown and national self-confidence and pride have been improved.
Third, before the experiment, most students expressed a great interest in Chinese culture. However, due to the pressure of studying, they did not have much time to pay attention to Chinese culture, resulting in little understanding of Chinese culture. Now, by integrating native culture into high school English teaching, most students changed their attitudes toward learning about Chinese culture in English classes. They said that learning appropriate English expressions about Chinese culture in English class would help them expand their oral expression skills for related cultural activities, and also facilitate their understanding of background knowledge about Chinese culture in their reading and accumulation of writing materials for output in English exams.
4.3.3Discussion of the Effects
According to the analysis of students' English scores before and after the experiment and the post interview for students, there are mainly two major findings.
First, the analysis of the pre-test and post test results shows that the average score of the students in the experimental class is much higher than that in the control class, which shows that the integration of Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into the high school English classroom has a positive impact on the students' English learning performance. The experiment also proves that in the process of English teaching, teachers should pay due attention to the introduction of cultural knowledge while imparting language knowledge, and adopt flexible and diverse methods for cultural teaching. Only in this way can we effectively stimulate students' interest in learning, expand their cultural horizons while mastering language knowledge, and improve their cross-cultural communication skills, thus improving their overall language ability.
Second, according to the pre-interview and the post-interview, the author finds that incorporating Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into English teaching has a positive effect on students' learning in the classroom. It not only improves students' interest in learning English, but also helps to improve their ability to express Chinese culture in English.
In addition, it helps to improve students' English language performance. Therefore, it is necessary for teachers to integrate Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into senior high school English teaching.
Chapter 5 Conclusion
The conclusion section is the last part of this thesis. It focuses on the three conclusions of this study, as well as the limitations and future prospects of this study.
5.1 Research Findings
On the basis of the data discussed and analyzed from the questionnaires, interviews, and tests, the major findings of this study are as follows.
5.1.1The Findings of Current Situation of Integrating Chinese Cultural Ideological and Political Elements into Senior High School English Teaching
The results of the questionnaire survey and interview with teachers and students show that the current situation of the integration of ideological and political elements of Chinese culture into senior high school English language teaching (Hereinafter referred to as ELT) has both positive and negative aspects.
First, the positive aspect is reflected in the fact that there is a strong consciousness among most teachers and students about propagating brilliant Chinese culture and a positive attitude toward integrating Chinese culture into the English teaching classroom. Both of them agree that improving the ability to express excellent Chinese culture in English is very crucial in cross-cultural communication. From the teachers' viewpoints, the integration of elements of Chinese cultural ideology and politics is considered very vital to students' language learning and the development of their overall language skills. From the perspective of students, most of them want to be exposed to more Chinese culture in their future English learning and basically believe that knowledge of Chinese culture plays an important role in their English learning.
Second, the negative aspect is that there is still insufficient input of Chinese culture in high school English teaching, as shown by the results of questionnaires and interviews,
despite the increasing voice of injecting Chinese culture into ELT in recent years. For one thing, owing to the limitation of teaching time and the pressure of teaching, teachers still emphasize on vocabulary, grammar, and exercises in their daily teaching process, which also leads to the inadequacy of teachers' expressions in Chinese cultural English, which in turn leads to the infrequency of teaching Chinese cultural English expressions in the classroom. For another, although teachers encourage and advocate students to acquire cultural knowledge through multiple channels, students have insufficient internal motivation to acquire cultural resources, and the heavy academic pressure makes students unable to take care of them, and in the current evaluation and examination form, there are not many examinations on cultural knowledge, only a few students extensively acquire cultural-related knowledge in their spare time.
5.1.2The Findings about Senior High Students' Current Ability to Express Chinese Culture in English
Although most of the students expressed interest in expressing their native culture in English, the test results showed that the learners did not express their native culture in English at a satisfactory level. Therefore, they do not meet the requirements of culture in the NECS (2017). The causes of high school students' low ability to express English in their native culture may be affected by the traditional English teaching model, the limitations of textbooks and test content, etc.
5.1.3The Findings of Chinese Cultural Ideological and Political Elements Integrating into Senior High School English Teaching Experiment
Through this study, it is found that integrating Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into senior high school English classroom can achieve good teaching results.
First, the integration of Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into high school English teaching has a positive impact on students' English performance. According to the analysis of the results of the English language proficiency test before the experiment in the experimental class and the control class, it can be concluded that the average score of the students in the experimental class is significantly higher than that in the control class. The specific differences are reflected in the level of English reading and writing. Language and
culture are inseparable. Learning the cultural connotation behind the language can in turn promote the understanding and application of the language. There are obvious cultural differences between China and the West, especially in terms of language expression. Understanding this knowledge will naturally promote the learning of English language. Therefore, it can be concluded that the integration of Chinese culture into senior high school English classroom can improve students' English language performance.
Second, as indicated by the results of the questionnaire, the students would like to have Chinese cultural knowledge integrated into the ELT, and they prefer teachers to broaden and deepen the cultural content covered in the textbook. Based on post-experiment interviews with students, it was verified that integrating Chinese culture into high school English teaching has a positive impact on students' language skills, mainly in terms of Chinese cultural output in English. It can also further trigger students' interest and enthusiasm in learning English. It is well known that students' potential is unlimited. Therefore, in teaching the contrast between Chinese and Western cultures, students are easily receptive to the impact and experience brought by foreign cultures and are willing to learn this new knowledge.
Thus, as long as teachers give correct guidance, students can not only learn knowledge, but also establish correct and positive English learning concepts and improve their English language skills and interest in language learning.
After this study, we not only understood the present condition of teaching Chinese culture in English classroom, and grasped the current level of high school students' expression of Chinese culture in English, but also confirmed that the integration of Chinese cultural ideological and political elements in high school English classroom is conducive to achieving good teaching results.
First of all, in the context that everyone is a Chinese storyteller, English teachers should shoulder the historical mission and responsibility of telling Chinese stories to students. Therefore, teachers should improve their bilingual language and cultural literacy. Because if teachers talk about China and Chinese culture in English in class, it can not only enhance the
77 practicability of teaching, but also improve students' interest in learning. For this reason, a necessity exists to improve English teachers' culture in their target language and native language and to enhance their national self-consciousness. As language teachers, one should be highly aware of the differences between Chinese and Western cultures, strive to improve one's own cultural literacy, and guide students in the teaching process to examine the strengths and weaknesses of Western culture on the basis of their own culture, so as to better absorb the essence of foreign culture. It is also beneficial to cultivate and enhance students' consciousness of national culture while carrying forward their own culture.
Second, teachers should integrate ideological and political elements of Chinese culture in high school English classrooms closely with textbooks, be good at excavating the extension materials of textbooks, reasonably add relevant cultural content, and pay attention to the connection with the actual life of students. Then, classroom teaching should focus on students' autonomous learning, and teachers should play a good role in guiding and supervising. In addition, we should grasp the relationship between the actual teaching tasks and the newly added teaching content, so as to ensure the completion of the normal teaching goals of high school English, strengthen the teaching of Chinese culture, and improve the English level of the students.
Third, teachers should recognize the importance of developing students' thinking skills in addition to their language and cultural competence. As one of the four core literacy of English, the cultivation of thinking literacy aims to be able to identify specific phenomena in language and culture, correctly judge various thoughts, express one's own views creatively, have multiple thinking awareness and comprehensive thinking ability and innovative thinking. The core of cultivating students' competence in expressing Chinese culture in English is to successfully and naturally connect English language knowledge and Chinese cultural knowledge with students' thinking abilities, thus propelling the excellent Chinese culture to the world.
5.3Limitations and Suggestions of the Research
Despite the results of this study suggesting that integrating elements of Chinese cultural ideology and politics in high school English teaching can have a positive effect on students' English learning, there are some limitations due to various influences.
First, the sample size was not large enough. This experiment only selected 16 English teachers and 100 students from Grade one of a senior high school, so the results and findings are not presentative and can't be generalized to other senior high schools and regions.
Second, the questions in the design of the questionnaire survey were also modified on the basis of reference to other scholars. Due to the limited level of the author, there may be insufficient depth and breadth.
Finally, the teaching experiment of integrating Chinese cultural ideological and political elements into high school English classroom has restrictions on the selection and capacity of teaching content. The teaching experiment lasted only one semester, and the introduction content is not systematic and comprehensive. In addition, the high school English teaching task is heavy and the teaching focus is difficult to grasp, so the students' English grammar skills have not been significantly improved. The manifestation of educational effect needs a long process, especially the cultivation of students' interest in English learning. Students' awareness of taking the initiative to obtain cultural knowledge, and the effectiveness of teachers' teaching strategies and teaching methods needs to be tracked for a long time. However, due to the author's own limited ability and energy, it is impossible to do a comprehensive tracking. Therefore, the research conclusions need to be further verified.
Given the results of the study and the limitations of the methodology, the following suggestions are offered to other teachers.
The first suggestion is to enlarge the number of experimental subjects, prolong the teaching time of the experiment, enrich the experiment process, and make the data more reliable.
The second suggestion is that integrating ideological and political elements of Chinese culture into high school English classrooms need to ensure long-term and systematic, and make Chinese culture teaching a part of high school English teaching.
The last suggestion is to arrange systematic Chinese cultural teaching materials according to the existing teaching materials, create a real scene of cross-cultural communication for students as much as possible, make full use of modern teaching equipment, create a lively classroom atmosphere, and give full play to the enthusiasm and initiative of students. Improve English proficiency and develop intercultural communication skills.
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