List of Abbreviations IX
List of Tables X
List of Figures XII
I . Introduction 1
1.1Background of the Research 1
1.2Purpose of the Research 2
1.3Significance of the Research 3
1.4Overall Structure of the Thesis 4
II.Literature Review 5
2.1Relevant Definitions 5
2.1.1Teaching Evaluation 5
2.1.2Integration of Teaching, Learning and Assessment 6
2.1.3Relevant Definitions in This Research 7
2.2Related Studies on ITLA at Home and Abroad 8
2.2.1Related Studies on ITLA Abroad 8
2.2.2Related Studies on ITLA at Home 11
III.Theoretical Foundations 18
3.1Bloom's Theory of Mastery Learning 18
3.2Constructive Learning Theory 19
3.3The Theory of Developmental Education Evaluation 20
W・ Methodology 22
4.1Research Questions 22
4.2Research Subjects 22
4.3Research Methods 22
4.3.1Questionnaire Survey Method 22
4.3.3Experimental Research Method 23
4.4Research Instruments 23
4.4.2Interview Schedule 28
4.4.3Test Papers 28
4.5Research Process 28
4.5.1Teaching Model Based on ITLA Teaching 28
4.5.2Implementation ofITLA Teaching 32
V. Results and Discussion 40
5.1An Analysis of the Current Situation of English ITLA Teaching in Senior High
5.1.1Analysis of Teachers' Questionnaire Survey 40
5.1.2Results andAnalysis ofTeacher's Interviews 48
5.2.1Analysis of Students'Interest in English Learning Before the Experiment52
5.2.2Analysis of Students'Interest in English Learning After the Experiment53
5.3Analysis ofStudents'EnglishAcademic Performance 55
5.3.1Pre-test of Students' English Academic Performance 55
5.3.2Post-test ofStudents'EnglishAcademic Performance 55
W・ Conclusion 57
6.1Major Findings 57
6.4Recommendations for Further Research 59
Appendix I 65
Appendix II 68
Appendix IH 70
Appendix IV 71
Appendix V Pre-test Paper 73
Appendix VI Post-test Paper 78
List of Abbreviations
CC: Control Class
EC: Experimental Class
ITLA: Integration ofTeaching, Learning and Assessment
SPSS24.0: Statistical Package for Social Science 24.0
List of Tables
Table 4-1 The Structure ofthe Questionnaire 24
Table 4-2 The Content of Questionnaire on the Current Situation of ITLA Teaching in High School 25
Table 4-3 The Contents of Questionnaire about High School Students' Interest in English Learning 26
Table 4-4 Reliability Statistics of Questionnaire on the Current Situation of ITLA English Teaching in High School (Teacher) 27
Tables 4-5 KMO and Bartlett's Test of Questionnaire on the Current Situation of ITLA English Teaching in High School (Teacher) 27
Table 4-6 Reliability Statistics of Questionnaire about High School Students' Interest in English Learning (Student ) 27
Table 4-7 KMO and Bartlett's Test of Questionnaire about High School Students' Interest in English Learning (Student ) 27
Table4-8 Operating Procedures ofTextProcessing 30
Table 4-9 The Arrangement of the Teaching Contents of the Experiment 32
Table 4-10 Unit4 Global Warming of Book6 3 3
Table 4-11 A Plan Example 3 4
Table 4-12 The Evaluation Form of Mind Map 36
Table 4-13 Oral Presentation Evaluation Form 3 7
Table 4-14 Final Overall Evaluation ofthe Product 39
Table 5-1 Basic Information ofthe Respondents 40
Table 5-2 High School English Teachers' Understanding of ITLA 42
Table 5-3 Statistical Results ofItem 6-12 42
Table 5-4 Statistical Results ofItem13-15 44
Table 5-5 Statistical Results ofItem16-20 45
Table 5-6 Record ofTeacher's Interview ofQ1 49
Table 5-7 Record ofTeacher's Interview ofQ2 50
Table 5-8 Independent Sample T-test for the Pre-test ofStudents'Interest in EC and CC52 Table 5-9 Independent Sample T-test for the Post-test of Students' Interest in EC and
Table 5-10 Independent Sample T-test on English Academic Performance of Pre-test in
EC and CC 55
Table 5-11 Independent Sample T-test on English Academic Performance of Post-test in
EC and CC 56
List of Figures
Figure 4-1 Teaching Model Based on ITLA Teaching 29
Figure 5-1 Doughnut of Statistical Results of Item 21 45
Figure 5-2 Histogram of Statistical Results of Item 22 46
Figure 5-3 Pie Chart of Statistical Results of Item 23 47
Figure 5-4 Bar Chart of Statistical Results of Item 24 47
In this part, the research background will be introduced first, then the purpose and significance of the research will be discussed, and finally the structure of the thesis will be briefly explained.
1・1 Background of the Research
On June 30, 2020, the 14th Session of Commission for Further Evaluation Reform under the CPC Central Committee reviewed and approved the Overall Plan for Further Education Evaluation Reform in the New Era (hereinafter referred to as “Overall Plan”). “Overall Plan” proposed to improve the outcome evaluation, strengthen the process evaluation, explore value-added evaluation, and optimize comprehensive evaluation. Obviously, the education evaluation system in the new era emphasizes process-oriented evaluation, aiming to change the current education that pays too much attention to examinations and ignores evaluation issues. ITLA teaching and “Overall Plan” have the same concept of evaluation. Therefore, in ITLA classroom teaching, teaching, learning and classroom evaluation are integrated and consistent. Moreover, the implementation of ITLA in the classroom can effectively improve the subject key competencies of students and enhance students' ability of independence, cooperation and inquiry, which is beneficial to cultivate innovative talents who can adapt to international competition.
English Curriculum Standards for General High School (2017 Edition, Revised in 2020) (hereinafter referred to as New Curriculum Standard) proposed that teaching evaluation should be core competencies-oriented, with formative evaluation as the mainstay and supplemented by summative evaluation. Furthermore, in education evaluation, teachers should pay more attention to the multi-dimensional evaluation objectives, the multiformity of evaluation subjects, the diversification of evaluation forms and the comprehensiveness ofevaluation content. Therefore, teachers need to pay attention to the role of teaching evaluation in English classrooms to realize ITLA. Meanwhile, it is proposed that teachers should properly handle the relationship between evaluation and teaching and learning, and promote the implementation of ITLA. Classroom evaluation activities should run through the whole process of teaching, serve the checks of teaching goals, and provide feedback on students' learning problems, which can provide timely help and feedback for students, and promote them to learn more effectively. In view of this, teachers should be concerned about ITLA, and implement and apply it in teaching, playing the role of teaching evaluation to realize the promotion of learning and teaching by assessment.
Under such a background, it is an important issue of English teaching in high school to implement the evaluation concept advocated in the Overall Plan and the New Curriculum Standard to promote the integration and unification of teacher's instruction, student's learning and classroom evaluation, and then cultivate students' key competences.
In actual English teaching, evaluation is independent of teaching, and does not play a leading and guiding role in teachers' teaching and students' learning. In addition, process evaluation has not been paid attention to, and students' evaluation is mostly based on summative evaluation. Affected by the test-oriented education, the current evaluation has not played a positive role in teaching, which restricts the cultivation of students' sense of social responsibility, innovative spirit and practical ability (Meng, 2019). Yet, the growth of students is not achieved overnight. They should be trained in every class, with evaluation tasks and classroom activities as an important channel, to carry out classroom teaching and evaluation. In this process, teachers should collect evidence of students' learning, identify problems, and provide timely feedback and support. However, teachers have not well implemented the concept of ITLA in their teaching. They attach more importance to the imparting of knowledge to students, and spend more time and energy on teaching, while ignoring the evaluation of learning effects of students.
1.2Purpose of the Research
The purpose of this research is to investigate the current situation of ITLA of English teaching in senior high schools and then explore the design of the English teaching based on ITLA in high school and apply it to practical teaching. Beside, it tries to achieve the purpose of facilitating students' learning and promoting teachers' teaching by assessment. It is hoped that it can provide the English teachers of senior high school with a teaching design idea of ITLA and supply a certain reference value for the promotion and research ofITLA teaching.
1・3 Significance of the Research
As for the significance of the research, it can be analyzed from this study puts the theoretical aspect and practical aspect.
From the theoretical aspect, the theoretical research on education evaluation at home and abroad has achieved fruitful results, which has played a role in guaranteeing the quality of education and teaching in China. However, the problem of exam-oriented education and ignoring formative assessment remains prominent. Although the New Curriculum Standard clearly require that teaching evaluation should be based on formative evaluation and supplement by summative evaluation, in general, the current teaching evaluation overemphasizes the ultimate judgment of teaching results and students' performance. The tendency to evaluate students solely by their test scores has not been fundamentally changed (Meng, 2019) which is not conducive to the all-round development of students. However, in the ITLA classroom teaching, the centrality of students is highlighted, and evaluation is mainly based on formative evaluation, in which teaching evaluation runs through the whole process of teaching and learning. Hence, in the case of combining the national conditions in China, the characteristics of English subject and the theoretical research on ITLA at home and abroad, this research explores the teaching model of ITLA, and apply it to the real English classroom. It is hoped that it can provide a theoretical reference for how to evaluate English classroom teaching, enriches the student-centered evaluation theoretical system, and provides a reference for further theoretical research on ITLA in senior high schools.
From the practical aspect, this research explores teaching model of ITLA, and apply it to the real English classroom which provides a specific idea for the implementation of ITLA. Meanwhile, it develops specific classroom implementation plans and specific evaluation measures, which is helpful for teachers to understand the mastery of students' knowledge in a timely manner, and timely take corresponding measures to help students learn better. Moreover, it can effectively improve the quality of teaching, and also help to promote the professional development of teachers.
The classroom of ITLA focuses on the learning process, highlights the centrality of students, and takes students as the main body of evaluation. Thus, in the process of ITLA teaching, students are allowed to participate in the formulation and negotiation of evaluation standards which change their roles from the recipient of evaluation to the subject and active participant of evaluation, so that they have the real right to speak. In the classroom, the individual differences of students are respected, the enthusiasm of students to learn English is improved, so they can have a strong interest in English learning.
1.4Overall Structure of the Thesis
This paper consists of six parts, the structure of which is as follows.
Part one is the introduction. It mainly introduces research background, research purpose and research significance.
Part two is literature review. It mainly includes the definition, reviews and summarizes the relevant research status of ITLA.
Part three is theoretical basis of the study. It represents three theoretical foundations of the research.
Part four is methodology. Research questions, research subjects, research methods, research instruments, and research procedures are introduced.
Part five is the results and discussion. In this part combined with the research questions, the data collected in the research process is analyzed and explained.
Part six is conclusion. It summarizes the major findings and implications of the research, illustrates research limitations, and gives relevant suggestions about ITLA research.
I・ Literature Review
This part mainly defines the relevant definitions of teaching evaluation, ITLA, etc., deeply understands their connotation, and summarizes and analyzes related research of ITLA at home and abroad.
2・1 Relevant Definitions
2・1・1 Teaching Evaluation
Teaching evaluation is a part of teaching activities, which is a key link of ITLA, and plays a vital role in ITLA's classroom teaching. Different scholars have different explanations for the meaning of teaching evaluation. For example, Taylor (1949) published a book Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction, in which he mentioned that the process of teaching evaluation is a process of judging the degree to which the actual curriculum and teaching plan achieve the expected educational goals. Li Dingren and Liu Xudong (2001) believed that for teaching evaluation, teaching activities must be aimed at the development of students, which was the value tendency of modern teaching evaluation. Based on previous research, Heritage (2010) proposed that assessment was the process by which teachers communicated goals and collected, articulated and used learning evidence. Education aims to detect and evaluate the development of students' relevant competencies. It provides feedback and suggestions for curriculum and teaching, and urges continuous reform of them to achieve the goal of subject core competencies education (Liu, 2016).
Crooks (1988) explored the influence of classroom evaluation on student performance based on meta-analysis, and found that classroom evaluation can help students consolidate existing knowledge and skills, improve learning skills, and use positive learning strategies to enhance learning motivation. McMillan (2017) believed that classroom evaluation can not only promote students' development, but also help teachers diagnose students' strengths and weaknesses, monitor students' learning progress, improve teaching, and give parents feedback. It can be seen that teaching evaluation is a value judgment of teaching activities, and its fundamental purpose is to improve the effect of teaching and learning, diagnose whether teaching goals are achieved, and ultimately promote the development of students' relevant competencies. Staffelbeam of the United States believes that the most critical purpose of evaluation is not to prove, but to improve. That is to say, evaluation is a means to obtain information from the teaching process and make teaching better achieve its goals. This kind of evaluation is no longer a simple test of students' knowledge, which is more concerned with real and controllable tests in the learning process. Moreover, it integrates evaluation into teaching and learning, so that evaluation tasks are no longer separated from teaching, but participate in the teaching process to promote teaching activities, and students' learning.
2.1.2Integration of Teaching, Learning and Assessment
Scholars have explained the definition of the integration of teaching, learning and assessment from different perspectives.
In 1987, the American educational psychologist Cohen, S.A. first proposed the concept of “Instructional Alignment” which was used to replace the degree of matching between certain design conditions in teaching and the expected teaching process and teaching results. American education review expert Webb N.L. (1999) believed that alignment referred to the degree of agreement between two or more things, that is, the parts or elements of things were integrated into a harmonious whole and point to the understanding of the same concept. According to Weber's point of view, Cui Yunluo (2015) defined ITLA as the degree of coordination among the three factors, including teachers' teaching, students' learning and evaluation of students' learning in classroom teaching system.
Wang Yunsheng (2019) believed that ITLA emphasized the consistency of teaching objectives, students' learning objectives, and classroom evaluation objectives, and required an integrated design of teaching, learning, and evaluation. Evaluation is to examine the degree of achievement of learning objectives and to promote the achievement of classroom teaching objectives. In addition, evaluation should be integrated with the teaching process and become an indispensable part of classroom teaching. It is the key of implementing ITLA to correctly determine the learning objectives and design the learning activities that can effectively evaluate the learning process.
Wang Qiang and Li Liang (2019) believed that teaching-learning-evaluation refers to three aspects of a complete teaching activity, and integration refers to the fusion and unity of these three aspects. Teaching is goal-oriented and aims at cultivating the core competencies of students. Learning is to develop the key competencies of students, which is consistent with the content of teaching. Evaluation is for the promotion of teaching and learning. Therefore, teaching, learning, and evaluation are essentially the same, and their common goal is to develop the core competencies of students. Classroom activities are the basic organizational form of teachers' teaching and students' learning, and the main way to implement curriculum objectives. In order to achieve curriculum objectives, teachers must construct curriculum content and teaching methods that are consistent with the objectives. It means they need to integrate teaching objectives and learning outcomes into assessment tasks and classroom activities to ensure the consistency of teaching, learning and assessment, that is, to implement the ITLA practice paradigm.
To sum up, the definition of ITLA can be divided into two aspects. In the first aspect, it refers to the unification of teachers' teaching, students' learning, and learning evaluation. The second aspect refers to the consistency of teaching objectives, students' learning objectives, and classroom evaluation objectives. In this study, teaching, learning and assessment refers to integrating the three aspects of teachers' teaching, students' learning and classroom evaluation. The integration is fusion of the three. Evaluation is an inseparable part of teaching and it is necessary to embed evaluation in teaching and play the role of evaluation in supervising teaching, so as to monitor the learning process of students, test the effect of teaching and learning, and realize the promotion of learning and teaching with evaluation.
2・1・3 Relevant Definitions in This Research
In this part, the relevant definitions mentioned in this study, including students' interest in English learning, students' English academic performance, and improvement of interest in English learning and English academic performance, will be explained.
In this research, students' interest in English learning refers to a psychological tendency that students are eager to acquire English cultural knowledge or skills and actively understand and explore in English learning activities. There are five factors that affect students' interest in English learning, including understanding the function, feeling of pleasure, engagement of learning, expanding knowledge, and application. The improvement of students' interest in English learning means that students have made positive changes in these five aspects. That is to say, students can more clearly understand the role of English learning, enjoy the process of English learning, listen more attentively, complete homework seriously and actively apply the English knowledge learned in listening, speaking, reading and writing.
In this study, students' English academic performance refers to students' English achievement scores in stage examinations. In the examination, students' language skills, including reading, grammar, writing and vocabulary will be tested. Improvement of English academic performance means that post-test scores of students are higher than their pre-test scores, so their language skills enhance.
2.2Related Studies on ITLA at Home and Abroad
2.2.1Related Studies on ITLA Abroad
(1)Theoretical Studies on ITLA
By searching the literature, it is found that the theoretical research on ITLA abroad is relatively early. The original form of ITLA is the taxonomy of educational objectives created by Bloom et al (Wang, 2020). The original intention of ITLA is the consistency of goals and tests, which is reflected in the development of Taylor's objective model and constructive learning theory. Taylor pays attention to the selection of goals, and believes that evaluation is a means to test the achievement of goals. He also proposed a modern education evaluation system, and the initial concept of ITLA has been formed.
After the 1980s, the United States really started the research on ITLA. WJ.Popham (2004) pointed out that curriculum, teaching and evaluation were a whole, and the cooperation and exchange of experts in the three fields should be strengthened. He explained the curriculum as the final result achieved by students, that is, evaluation was to be able to better determine the appropriate objectives, and ultimately implement the most suitable teaching for students. R.G.Duncan et al. (2009) conducted a more in-depth study. They analyzed the consistency of teaching and evaluation from the perspective of students. The results showed that the combination of teaching, learning and evaluation is beneficial to students' learning. Anderson et al. (2009) analyzed from the perspective of objectives and pointed out that consistency refers to the degree of matching between objectives, teaching and testing.
Subsequently, many countries in the world joined the ITLA research team, including Japan, India, Finland, Australia and other countries.
Japan regards ITLA as a basic principle of evaluation teaching in primary and secondary schools, and advocates that evaluation should be carried out in a timely manner in the teaching process and feedback information to students to promote students' learning. In the 1990s, Japanese scholars Toshiyuki Mizuyoshi and Masao Okuda (1995) conducted research on ITLA in the book Corpus of New School Education 17- Evaluation of Educational Guidance and believed that the results of evaluation must be conducive to teaching and teaching and evaluation must be integrated.
In India's Education Curriculum Framework of National School published in September 2002, it was proposed that evaluation should be integrated with the teaching process, and evaluation should run through the teaching process. The school should implement ITLA's teaching design according to it, and promote the implementation of ITLA.
Finland also mentioned in the Finnish High School Curriculum Framework that evaluation should involve all aspects of teaching activities, and evaluation should include two factors, teacher evaluation and student evaluation (Zhong & Cui , 2003).
Australia's Board of Studies New South Wales began to revise the education syllabus in 2002, in which “evaluation for learning” became an important measure for its implementation of teaching and evaluation. Evaluation can promote teachers' teaching and students' learning. At the same time, the committee put forward the overall design of the unit and the teaching design model of the integration of evaluation and teaching, and worked out the design procedure of the unit teaching activity of the English subject. “Evaluation for Learning” centers on teaching and evaluation, and provides a model and implementation path for promoting the effective implementation of ITLA (Hua, 2021).
In short, the United States, Japan, India, Finland, Australia and other countries have made certain progress in the theoretical research of ITLA, tending to emphasize the important position of evaluation in teaching, advocating the combination of teaching and evaluation, and allowing evaluation to promote students' learning process. However, there is little research on how to use theory to guide the teaching of specific subjects.
(2)Practical Studies on ITLA
In foreign countries, with the maturity of ITLA's theoretical research, the application of it in practice has gradually developed.
American scholars Cohen, SA et al. (1987) not only conducted an in-depth exploration of the theory, but also applied this model to the classroom. After research, it is found that with high consistency of teaching objectives and evaluation design, students at all levels can achieve excellent results. They attribute the problems in American school education more to the inconsistency of teachers' teaching, students' learning and teaching evaluation. This was later confirmed in studies by Mitchell and Buckendah (Bhola & Buckendah, 2003) and others (Hao, 2013). Other countries have also probed in practice.
Franz Schott et al at the Dresden University of Technology in Germany developed the PLANA scale, which tests whether learners have learned what they want to learn in teaching, which ensures that teaching objectives should be closely aligned with teaching evaluations. In addition, Schott also gave 12 standards to help teachers evaluate students in the classroom to ensure the consistency of “teaching, learning, and evaluation” (Paul, Doris & Phoebe, 2000).
Jia Haiju and Zhu Chengke (2009) mentioned Finnish general high school curriculum and teaching evaluation advocates the use of various evaluation objectives and new evaluation methods. Teachers encourage students to adjust learning methods and strategies according to the goals that they set for themselves before. Finnish teaching evaluation focuses on the evaluation of students' performance, emphasizing the need to help each student develop better by evaluating the guidance of students' learning process. In the practical research of ITLA, Finland attaches great importance to the role of evaluation in curriculum and teaching, which emphasizes that evaluation plays a guiding and monitoring role in curriculum implementation and teaching. It highlights the guiding position of teaching objectives, and points out that it is necessary to help students to gain development through the process evaluation.
To sum up, scholars from the United States, Finland, and Germany have all emphasized the guiding role of teaching objectives in teaching in the practice research of ITLA, and tried to guide and evaluate students' learning through the achievement of objectives in the teaching process. ITLA has made great breakthroughs in practical research, but these studies lacked the exploration of the ITLA teaching model and did not carry out detailed research combined with specific subjects, lacked the analysis of teaching cases, and had limited guidance for the effective implementation of ITLA.
2.2.2Related Studies on ITLA at Home
Domestic research on ITLA is mainly reflected in three aspects, including the discussion of the connotation of ITLA, the suggestion on how to implement ITLA, and the design and practice of ITLA.
(1)The Discussion of the Connotation of ITLA
Some domestic scholars have interpreted the connotation of ITLA teaching. Professor Zhang Dewei first expounded the meaning of ITLA in his paper Principles of the Integration of Teaching and Evaluation in Japanese Primary and Secondary Schools and Its Enlightenment to Our Country in 2005.
Tang Yunbo (2013) believed that ITLA integrated evaluation and classroom teaching, and used guiding cases to collect information. The obtained evaluation information is used to reflect the current learning status of students, which let students know the distance between their current learning level and the goal, and then to discuss how to narrow the gap. It is a new paradigm ofteaching and learning aimed at achieving objectives, in which evaluation serves learning and teaching, and evaluation is for learning.
In 2015, at the 12th Shanghai course Forum, experts at home and abroad had in-depth discussions on the ITLA model and gave a new definition of the model. They hold views that the evaluation is not only for the final performance of students, but also forthe accompanying process of teaching and students' learning, constantly developing teaching, learning, and evaluation into an organic whole (Li, 2015).
Li Liang (2018) defined ITLA as a new type of teaching method and evaluation method, which was a benign interactive process of evaluation and learning, and a goal-oriented circulatory system integrating teaching, learning and evaluation, with systematic, dynamic and integrative features.
Wang Yunsheng (2019) proposed that ITLA is the theory and guiding ideology of classroom teaching design and organization, which emphasized that teaching objectives, students' learning objectives, and teaching evaluation objectives must be highly consistent. The evaluation should be combined with the teaching process, and detect the progress of the learning objectives in time to provide improvement directions for classroom teaching, so that the teaching objectives can be better accomplished.
Wang Qiang (2019) believed that “teaching, learning, and evaluation” referred to three aspects of a complete teaching activity, and “integration” referred to the unity of these three aspects. Teaching is goal-oriented, aiming at the cultivation of students' core competences of subjects. Learning is to develop the core competences of students, consistent with the content of teaching. Evaluation is for the promotion of teaching and learning. Therefore, teaching, learning, and evaluation are essentially the same, and the common goal is to develop the core competences of students.
Chinese scholars have explored theoretical research on ITLA based on the current situation of teaching evaluation in my country, and have gradually deepened their understanding of the connotation of ITLA. They all emphasized the important role of teaching evaluation and believed that teaching, learning and evaluation have synchronicity in time and same importance. However, the existing research also shows that there is a serious separation of teaching and evaluation in traditional classroom teaching in our country. This situation is not conducive to the role of evaluation in promoting teaching, the achievement of teaching goals, and improving the effectiveness of classroom teaching.
(2)Suggestions on how to Implement ITLA
Foreign research on ITLA is earlier than domestic research. In the research of ITLA, Chinese scholars need to learn from the successful experience of foreign research, but they must also combine the actual situation of classroom teaching in my country. They need to explore the localization of ITLA classroom teaching, and cannot copy them. In this regard, domestic scholars have made suggestions on how to implement ITLA.
Zhang Dewei's (2005) theoretical and practical research on ITLA in Japan, India and other countries put forward that teaching and evaluation are inseparable which is people's new understanding of the evaluation. Although there are many schools of modern teaching design, they all focus on integrating evaluation into the whole teaching process and emphasize the integration of teaching and evaluation. Under the background of new curriculum and teaching reform in our country, the practice of ITLA should not copy foreign theory and practice, but should carry out practice based on our country's reality.
Cui Yunhuo(2009) answered questions such as instructional design standards, instructional design processes, and theoretical sources of instructional design in The New Orientation of Curriculum Implementation: Teaching Based on Curriculum Standards, and affirmed the importance of consistency in instructional design.
Zhang Jurong (2013) emphasized the importance of matching evaluation tasks with learning objectives in his article From Task Design to Effect Reflection. He believed that in the classroom evaluation to promote learning, the learning objectives should be designed according to the curriculum standards, and the evaluation tasks of the course should be designed according to the learning objectives. After the learning objectives and evaluation tasks are determined, the teaching activities can be designed according to both. In this way, the evaluation task can always run through the whole teaching process, and the effectiveness ofclassroom teaching can be improved.
The purpose of ITLA localization research is to promote its implementation in classroom teaching. In 2011, at the “International Symposium on Classroom Evaluation”, in response to the problem that classroom teaching evaluation was not valued in my country, Professor Zhong Qiquan called on domestic scholars to pay attention to the research on classroom teaching evaluation, and pointed out that he hoped that it could play arole in promoting students' development (Tao, 2014).
Lu Zhen (2016) proposed in the ITLA practice research that teaching is an auxiliary line of learning, and teachers should maintain students' learning through the setting of evaluation tasks and the formulation of evaluation criteria. They need to use the evaluation results feedback to guide and promote students' learning. Students' learning is a process from the current state to the target state, which reflects the feedback and guiding role of the evaluation feedback mechanism in the ITLA classroom on students' learning.
Most scholars in China have noticed the promotion of teaching evaluation on teaching and students' learning in the research of ITLA, and pointed out that the classroom teaching research of ITLA should be combined with the actual situation of teaching in our country. Some scholars have also found the matching problem between learning tasks and teaching objectives, emphasizing the need to achieve the consistency of teaching, learning and evaluation in the teaching process. The suggestions on the implementation of ITLA classroom teaching in the existing research have a certain reference for teachers to implement ITLA in classroom teaching. However, even if many teachers can understand the important role of evaluation, there will still be huge problems due to the lack of practical research guidance in the process of implementing ITLA. Therefore, the existing research has limited effect on promoting the effective implementation of ITLA in China.
(3)The Design and Practice of ITLA
In recent years, practice research on ITLA has been increasing in China. In 2013, Jiang Yinhua designed ITLA's classroom teaching based on objectives. She believes that the design of evaluation should be goal-oriented, and the design of teaching should respect students' learning laws and emphasize process evaluation. In 2015, Suzhou City and Zhengzhou City successively carried out ITLA classroom practice, with the goal of promoting teachers' professional development and students' learning efficiency. They summed up the classroom model of “four sections, one case, one review” and “one center and three steps”. The application of the ITLA model in real classrooms has been realized, providing valuable experience for subsequent practical research (Pei, 2005). In the following years, practical research on ITLA mainly came from master's thesis, which was mainly applied research in specific disciplines, including the design and practice of ITLA.
In the subject of geography, Xu Zhencai (2018) of Henan University first investigated the ITLA status of a middle school in Zhengzhou, and put forward countermeasures according to the existing problems. Tong Ning of East China Normal University (2019) conducted a research on the performance evaluation in high school geography classroom, which is divided into teaching goal design, performance evaluation design, and scoring rule design matching the goal. Then it explores the differences in the effects of “embedded” and “integrated” performance evaluations in geography teaching.
In the subject of chemistry, Li Yalin (2018) of Shaanxi Normal University selected three national high-quality chemistry courses---the composition of water, and used classroom observation tools to analyze the ITLA level of the three courses from the classroom behavior and time allocation of teachers and students. It provides a new perspective for ITLA time studies in the future. Zhou Shijie of Hunan Normal University (2019) applied the ITLA teaching model to the “Ammonia Cycle” section of high school chemistry, and analyzed the practical results. The results show that the ITLA model is more effective than the traditional teaching model. Wang Xuan (2020) of Henan University applied the ITLA teaching model to the chemistry classroom teaching of senior one. The results show that it is beneficial to improve students' chemistry performance, and it is worthy of spreading and application and studying deeply.
In the English subject, Zhang Jingheng of Yunnan Normal University (2015) studied the current situation of ITLA in the actual English teaching classroom, analyzed the classrooms of five English teachers in the second grade of a middle school, and found problems in the classroom and the reasons for the inconsistency of teaching, learning and assessment. In 2018, Li Liang discussed the design and practice of ITLA under the project-based teaching framework through the presentation and analysis of high school English teaching cases, which provided theoretical support and practical reference for front-line teachers to learn and implement new curriculum standards under the background of core competences. In 2020, Wang Shu and Li Ping designed a PBL teaching model based on the research on PBL at home and abroad, combined with the concept of ITLA, which provided a new path for implementing the new curriculum standards, integrating teaching, learning and evaluation, and realizing ITLA. Jiang Jingru (2021) of Shandong Normal University conducted the design and practice of ITLA writing teaching, proving that the ITLA model has a positive impact on the English writing ability and attitude ofhigh school students.
In general, the practical research on ITLA in China is concentrated in the subjects of geography, chemistry and English, but the specific classroom examples are not perfect. The existing practical research has made important contributions to the effective implementation of ITLA in Chinese classrooms, but the main battlefield of ITLA's implementation lies in the classroom, and the main force to promote it is the front-line teachers. The significance of ITLA practice research is how to improve the teaching evaluation ability of front-line teachers to offer the feasible teaching model reference paradigm for them and how to combine subject teaching with case studies of ITLA to provide reference and help for teachers to implement ITLA.
This part represents the research situation of ITLA by domestic and foreign scholars and its implementation status in China through literature review. The following summarizes the research status ofITLA at home and abroad from two aspects.
On the one hand, from the perspective of theoretical research on ITLA, some progress has been made in theoretical research on ITLA abroad, emphasizing the important position of evaluation in teaching, and advocating the combination of
teaching and evaluation, so that evaluation can promote students' learning. Scholars in China have also carried out theoretical research on ITLA based on the current situation of teaching evaluation. However, theoretical research is to test its truth in practice. For the suggestions put forward by scholars to implement ITLA teaching, it is necessary to combine the current teaching situation in China to implement it in actual teaching. Therefore, the first research question of this study is established “What is the current situation of the implementation of ITLA in English teaching in senior high school?”.
On the other hand, from the perspective of practical research on ITLA, foreign scholars have emphasized the guiding role of teaching objectives in teaching, and tried to improve students' learning through the achievement of objectives in the teaching process, which has made ITLA a great breakthrough. In China, the practical research on ITLA is concentrated in the subjects of geography, chemistry and English, and the existing practical research has made important contributions to the effective implementation of ITLA teaching. However, these studies lacked the exploration of the ITLA teaching model, and did not carry out detailed research in combination with specific disciplines, and lacked the analysis of teaching cases, which had limited guidance for the effective implementation of ITLA teaching. Therefore, this study explores the teaching mode of ITLA and carries out practical teaching in combination with specific English subjects, and based on this, the second research question of this study is determined “What is the practical effect of high school English teaching based on ITLA?”.
In short, based on the above literature survey, this research will combine the characteristics of English subject and the current situation of classroom teaching in China and carry out research on ITLA's high school English teaching practice. Namely, this study will design ITLA teaching and apply it in practice, and finally draw conclusions through the analysis of the practice results in order to provide reference for high school English teachers to effectively implement ITLA.
HI. Theoretical Foundations
In order to ensure the effectiveness and feasibility of the implementation of high school English teaching based on ITLA, it is necessary to study the relevant theoretical basis. Hence, Bloom's theory of mastery learning, constructive learning theory, and the theory of developmental education evaluation provide important theoretical foundations for this study.
3.1Bloom's Theory of Mastery Learning
In the late 1960s, the famous American educator and psychologist Bloom put forward the theory of mastery learning (Zheng, 1990). The feedback-correction system in this theory means that in classroom teaching, teachers should timely diagnose the level of students' learning, and then adjust the teaching progress, improve teaching methods, and achieve teaching goals. The strategy of mastery learning is actually to supplement the regular group teaching with repetitive feedback and help with corrective function which is suitable for each individual student (Xu, 1992). As mentioned in mastery learning theory, the teaching process is actually a dynamic activity process, that it to say, teachers get feedback on students' learning status to adjust the teaching progress in a timely manner. After that students receive supplementary knowledge and only in this way can they achieve the expected teaching objectives.
Bloom's the theory of mastery learning provides some theoretical guidance for this research. In this study, in the teaching process based on ITLA teaching, classroom evaluation activities run through the whole process of teaching and serve to detect teaching objectives. Obviously, Bloom's the theory of mastery learning and ITLA teaching both emphasize that teachers should timely diagnose the level of students' learning, and then adjust the teaching progress, improve teaching methods, and achieve teaching goals. That is to say, teachers use evaluation in the classroom to obtain the learning information of the students in the teaching process, and judge the distance between the students' current learning status and the teaching goals. After that, teachers give students timely feedback and adjust the teaching progress to promote students to learn more effectively.
3.2Constructive Learning Theory
Piaget, the famous Swiss psychologist, was the first to put forward the theory of constructivism, which has become the mainstream of contemporary education. The basic view of constructivism about teaching is as follows.
In the first place, the theory advocated student-centred teaching. Constructivism requires respecting the dominant position of students in teaching, giving full play to students' consciousness, initiative and creativity, continuously improving students' subject consciousness and creativity, and finally making students become social subjects who is capable of self-education. Additionally, constructivism emphasizes human subjective initiative, that is, it requires learners to actively participate in teaching. In the process of interacting with the objective teaching environment, learners themselves actively construct knowledge frameworks. Diagnosis and reflection are one of the core features of constructivist learning (Gao, 1999). In the second place, the theory emphasizes cooperative learning. For the purpose of making students' understanding of things more thorough and comprehensive, teachers should try to improve the cooperation between students and between students and teachers.
The above viewpoints of constructive learning theory provide an important theoretical basis for this study which is reflected in two aspects. Details are as follows.
First, constructive learning theory emphasizes student-centred teaching. Therefore, in the teaching practice of ITLA, teachers should pay attention to the learning process, highlight the central position of students, and emphasize the role of different evaluation subjects. In English teaching, let students participate in the negotiation and formulation of evaluation standards, so that students can change from the recipient of evaluation to the subject and active participant of evaluation, and students have the real right to speak.
Second, constructive learning theory advocates cooperative learning. Hence, in the teaching of ITLA, students will construct knowledge and solve practical problems through independent learning and group collaboration under the guidance and supervision of teachers, so as to cultivate students' spirit of autonomy, cooperation and inquiry. In the meantime, constructive learning theory focuses on the cooperation between students and between students and teachers. Accordingly, in the teaching process of ITLA, group self-evaluation, group mutual evaluation and teacher evaluation will be used to enhance the cooperation between students and teachers.
3.3The Theory of Developmental Education Evaluation
Developmental education evaluation is different from selective evaluation and horizontal evaluation, focusing on diagnosis, motivation and development. Furthermore, its purpose is to better promote the growth of students, promote the improvement of teacher's teaching level, and advance the development of schools. Besides, its content is diversified, focusing not only on academic achievement and enrollment rate, but also on the development of various qualities and potentials of the evaluators (Dong & Zhao, 2003). In fact, developmental education evaluation is a formative evaluation, which is put forward in view of the drawbacks of summative evaluation for the purpose of grading, reward and punishment, advocates the development for future and evaluation objects. Developmental education evaluation is different from summative evaluation, which runs through the whole process of teaching. The key point of it is to promote the continuous development of the evaluators, and its main points include the following aspects.
First, its purpose is to promote the development of students. The purpose of developmental education evaluation is not to prove, but to improve. Different from the traditional summative assessment that only focuses on the results of learning, it uses evaluation as a teaching method to help teachers diagnose students' knowledge mastery, ability development level and obstacles in thinking, so that teachers make targeted teaching adjustments. Moreover, its purpose is to improve the effectiveness of teaching through evaluation and promote the development of students.
Second, it emphasizes the diversity of evaluation. The diversification of evaluation mainly includes three aspects, evaluation subject, evaluation content and standard, and evaluation form. The subject of evaluation includes not only teachers, but also students, which can be teacher evaluation or student mutual evaluation. The content of evaluation is no longer limited to textbook knowledge, but also includes students' thinking mode and ability level. In addition to exams and homework, the evaluation forms include classroom questions and after-school interviews.
Third, the theory pays attention to the timeliness and whole process of evaluation. In the developmental education evaluation, the evaluation runs through the teaching, and the students are evaluated instantly, which overcomes the lag of the summative evaluation and is more conducive to the development of the students.
Implications of developmental education evaluation theory for this research include three aspects. Firstly, the purpose of developmental education evaluation theory is to promote the development of students. In ITLA teaching, evaluation should be a part of classroom teaching, and its purpose is also to improve the effectiveness of teaching and promote students' development. Secondly, developmental education evaluation theory emphasizes the diversity of evaluation. Therefore, in the process of ITLA teaching teachers should set up group activities in classroom teaching to increase students' communication opportunities, and carry out diversified evaluations by setting up student self-assessment and mutual assessment, display and exchange, etc. Thirdly, timeliness of developmental education evaluation theory requires that feedback in class must be timely, which inspires us to seize the critical period in teaching and ask questions in time in order to effectively enlighten students' thinking. Developmental evaluation focuses on the whole process of evaluation which inspires us that evaluation not only includes timely questioning in the classroom, but also should play the diagnostic function of classroom exercises and homework. This coincides with the ITLA advocated in this study to integrate assessment into the classroom, which provides a scientific theoretical basis for this study.
The main contents of this part include research questions, research subjects, research methods, research instruments and research process.
The research questions to be addressed in the study are the following:
1.What are the current situation and problems of the implementation of ITLA in English teaching in high school?
2.What is the practical effect of high school English teaching based on ITLA？
(1) Can English teaching based on ITLA increase students' interest in English learning?
(2) Can English teaching based on ITLA improve students' English academic performance?
This study takes 30 English teachers and 108 students in two parallel classes of the second grade of Tianshui xx Middle School as the research subjects, with 54 students per class. Both classes have the same English teacher.
4.3.1Questionnaire Survey Method
The questionnaire survey in this paper is divided into two parts. The first part is that a questionnaire on the teaching status of high school English ITLA is set up according to the relevant literature, taking 30 English teachers in Tianshui xx Middle School as the research subjects. Use Wenjuanxing, a professional online questionnaire, assessment and voting platform, to collect data to look into the current situation of English ITLA teaching in senior high school. The second part is that before the experiment and after the experiment, the students in the EC and CC are investigated through the questionnaire on the English learning interest of high school students, and the differences and changes ofthe students'interest in English learning before and after the experiment are analyzed to provide certain data support for this research.
The interview in this research is mainly to interview 9 English teachers in high schools before the experiment to further understand the current situation of high school English ITLA teaching.
4.3.3Experimental Research Method
In this study, two parallel classes in the second grade of senior high school were randomly set to EC and CC, and there was no difference in the students' interest in learning before the experiment in the two classes, and the level of academic performance was similar. The students of EC was taught by the teaching model of ITLA while the students of CC learned in the traditional teaching method. SPSS24.0 software was used to analyze the scores offirst stage exam and final scores ofthe two classes and the level of interest in English learning to understand the impact of ITLA teaching on students'English academic performance and interest in English learning.
(1)Questionnaire on the Current Situation of ITLA English Teaching in High School (Teacher)
In this study, the questionnaire is used to investigate the current situation of ITLA English teaching in high school. It was adapted from the questionnaire of the master degree thesis, Research on the Current Situation of Integrated Teaching of Teaching, Learning and Evaluation for High School Chemistry (Zhang, 2019) (see Appendix I) and adjust the items as needed.
The questionnaire consists of 24 questions, including 3 parts, all of which are choice questions. The first part is mainly about the background information of the respondents, including gender, years of teaching, educational level, professional title, and grade settings. The second and third parts are the main body of the questionnaire, focusing on four dimensions. There are four dimensions of the questionnaire, including high school English teachers' understanding of ITLA, high school English teachers' choice of ITLA teaching strategies, high school English teachers' design of ITLA teaching and high school English teachers' implementation of ITLA teaching. The second part is a single-choice question, and the Likert scale is used to test the four dimensions. The third part is a multiple-choice question, which is also a test of the four dimensions. The details are shown in Table 4-1.
Table 4-1 The Structure of the Questionnaire
Components of the
Questionnaire Question Type Corresponding
Part 1 Single-choice question Item 1-5 Background information of the respondents
Part 2 Single-choice question Item 6-20 Testing the four dimensions by Likert scale
Part 3 Multiple-choice question Item 21-24 Testing the four dimensions by Likert scale
As shown in Table 4-1, the four dimensions of the questionnaire are further divided into some smaller dimensions. The first dimension includes three aspects, teachers' understanding of the relationship between teaching and evaluation (Item6, Item7), the role of evaluation in classroom teaching (Item8, Item9) and recognition of the implementation of ITLA (Item10, Item11, Item12). The second dimension is divided into two aspects, teachers' mastery and application of evaluation concepts (Item13, Item14) and teachers' choice of evaluation methods (Item15, Item21). The third dimension is also divided into three aspects, the design basis of evaluation objectives and evaluation standards (Item16, Item22), the relevant elements of ITLA design (Item17, Item18, Item19) and the consistency of teaching objectives, learning objectives, and evaluation tasks (Item20). The fourth dimension is divided into two sub-dimensions, the influencing factors of ITLA implementation (Item23) and practical difficulties of ITLA implementation (Item24). The details are shown in Table 4-2.
Table 4-2 The Content of Questionnaire on the Current Situation of
ITLA Teaching in High School
Questionnaire The contents of dimension Corresponding
ITLA Understanding ofthe relationship between teaching and evaluation Item6/ Item7
The role of evaluation in classroom teaching Item8/ Item9
Recognition of the implementation of ITLA Item10/ Item11/
(2)Choice of ITLA teaching strategies Mastery and application of evaluation concepts Item13/ Item14
Choice of evaluation methods Item15/ Item21
(3)Design ofITLA teaching The design basis of evaluation objectives and evaluation standards Item16/ Item22
The relevant elements of ITLA design Item17/ Item18/
The consistency of teaching objectives, learning objectives, and evaluation tasks Item20
(4)Implementation of ITLA teaching Influencing factors Item23
Practical difficulties Item24
(2) Questionnaire about High School Students' Interest in English Learning
The questionnaire was adapted from the master thesis, A Study on the Structure, Current Situation and Influencing Factors of English Learning Interest of Primary School Students (Tang, 2008) (see Appendix II), and the items that do not meet the requirements were deleted. This questionnaire is used to verify the change of students' interest in English learning before and after the experiment. In order to collect more real data, the purpose of the questionnaire was explained to the students and then the students fill in the questionnaire before and after the experiment.
This questionnaire includes the student's personal information and other 28 questions. There are five factors that affect students' interest in English learning, that is, the five dimensions of the questionnaire: understanding the function, feeling of pleasure, engagement of learning, expanding knowledge, and application. The content structure of the questionnaire is shown in Table 4-3. The questions are all multiple-choice questions, using a five-point scale to test four dimensions, namely completely agree, partially agree, neutral, partially disagree, and completely disagree.
Table 4-3 The Contents of Questionnaire about High School
Students' Interest in English Learning
Dimensions of the Questionnaire Item
Understanding the function 1/ 6/ 11/ 16/ 20/ 24/ 26
Feeling of pleasure 2/ 7/ 12/ 14/ 21
Engagement of learning 3/ 8/ 13/ 17/ 22/ 25/ 27/ 28
Expanding knowledge 4/ 9/ 18/ 23
Application 5/ 10/ 15/ 19
In this research, the questionnaire will be distributed twice, and it will be scored and quantified. The data analysis software SPSS24.0 is used to process the relevant data, and the changes of students' interest in English learning in the EC and the CC are compared before and after the teaching practice of ITLA.
There are 28 questions in the questionnaire, all of which are answered in the form of five-point Likert scale, with “completely agree (5)” to “completely disagree (1)”. Questions 15, 16, 17, 18, and 28 are negative statements, so the scoring standard is the opposite ranging from “completely agree (1)” to “completely disagree (5)”.
(3)Test of the Validity and Reliability of the Questionnaires
The validity and reliability of questionnaires in this study are all analyzed by SPSS 20.0 software. In order to ensure the reliability and validity of the questionnaire, the reliability analysis uses the Cronbach's value to test. If the value of Cronbach's Alpha is higher than 0.8, it indicates that the questionnaire has high reliability. Validity analysis uses KMO value and Bartlett's sphericity test. If the KMO value is higher than 0.8 and the significance value is less than 0.05 in Bartlett's sphericity test, it means that the questionnaire has good validity.
The reliability and validity analysis of the questionnaire on the current situation of ITLA English teaching in high school (teacher) is shown in Table 4-4 and Table 4-5.
Table 4-4 Reliability Statistics of Questionnaire on the Current Situation of ITLA English
Teaching in High School (Teacher)
Cronbach's Alpha Number of Items
Tables 4-5 KMO and Bartlett's Test of Questionnaire on the Current Situation of ITLA English Teaching in High School (Teacher)
Taking sufficient amounts of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin .853
Bartlett Approximate Chi-Square 1285.416
As displayed in Table 4-4, the Cronbach's Alpha value of this questionnaire is 0.931>0.8, indicating that it has high reliability. It can be seen from Table 4-5 that the KMO value of this questionnaire is 0.853>0.8, and the Significance value is 0.001<0.05 in the Bartlett's sphericity test, which proves that this questionnaire has high validity.
The reliability and validity analysis ofthe questionnaire about high school students' interest in English learning (student ) is shown in Table 4-6 and Table 4-7.
Table 4-6 Reliability Statistics of Questionnaire about High School Students' Interest in
English Learning (Student )
Cronbach's Alpha Number of Items
Table 4-7 KMO and Bartlett's Test of Questionnaire about High School Students' Interest
in English Learning (Student )
Taking sufficient amounts of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin .907
Bartlett Approximate Chi-Square 2101.126
As shown in Table 4-6, the Cronbach's Alpha value of this questionnaire is 0.956>0.8, indicating that it has high reliability. It can be seen from Table 4-7 that the KMO value of this questionnaire is 0.907>0.8, and the Significance value is 0.002<0.05 in the Bartlett's sphericity test, which proves that this questionnaire has high validity.
The interview is a supplement to the questionnaire survey on the current situation of ITLA teaching in high school English (see Appendix III). It is further to investigate the current situation of ITLA teaching in high school English. The first question is the first dimension of the questionnaire (high school English teachers' understanding of ITLA). The second question belongs to the third dimension (high school English teachers' design of ITLA). The specific questions are as follows.
1.Can you talk about your understanding of the connotation of ITLA?
2.Do you implement the ITLA teaching concepts in your teaching? If yes, please talk about how you designed the ITLA instructional design.
The pre-test paper is the stage exam paper which is the first stage exam of the first semester (see Appendix V) to test students' English academic performance before the experiment. The post-test paper is the final English exam paper which is the second stage test of the first semester (see Appendix VI) to test the students' English academic performance after the experiment.
This part mainly introduces the design and implementation of ITLA-based teaching model. The specific details will be introduced in detail next.
4.5.1Teaching Model Based on ITLA Teaching
Wang Shu and Li Ping (2020) designed the ITLA teaching model under the framework of PBL, which divided the ITLA teaching model into four stages, including project preparation, project implementation, project presenting and project's overall evaluation in order to achieve the purpose of integration of teaching, learning, and assessment. By borrowing the model of ITLA teaching of Wang Shu and Li Ping, the teaching model of ITLA is designed as follows (see Figure 4-1).
Figure 4-1 Teaching Model Based on ITLA Teaching
Teaching model based on ITLAteaching include four stages, the specific process is as follows.
Stage1 There are two steps in this stage, task selecting, and task plan making.
Step1 Task selecting
The task topics should be determined according to the subject of the unit in the textbook, the tasks should be close to the students' life, and the task theme should be interesting, which can stimulate students' interest in English learning.
Step2 Task plan making
Students work in small groups to develop a task plan together under the guidance ofthe teacher. This stage includes group formation and role assignment. First ofall, the teacher divides the students into several groups according to the number of students. Students with strong learning ability are matched with students with weak learning ability. Besides, the tasks of the product will be assigned to each group member, and the teacher should guide the students to design a reasonable plan and carry out the learning step by step in a planned way. In the process of group discussion, teachers should guide each group's task plan appropriately by asking questions and feedback which are important evaluation methods.
In this stage, in the process of students' group discussion, teachers naturally join in the dialogue of group discussion, and let students think through the evaluation method of questioning and feedback, so as to achieve the purpose of promoting learning through evaluation.
Stage2 There are two steps in this stage, including text processing and product making.
Step1 Text Processing
At the stage, it is mainly to learn the contents of the textbook. The task is carried out in the form of reading lessons, including pre-reading, while-reading and post-reading. In the lesson, students need to complete different tasks in each steps, the details of which are shown in Table 4-8.
Table 4-8 Operating Procedures of Text Processing
Pre-reading Use questions, pictures, or videos to activate students' background knowledge and allow students to predict text contents.
Fast reading Students are asked to obtain relevant information summarize the general idea of the article. and
While-reading Careful reading Have students discuss and share mind maps in groups, and use a unified mind map evaluation form to evaluate the performance of each group.
Post-reading product making
Step2 Product Making
Before the beginning of this stage, teachers and students should jointly produce evaluation standards and complete the evaluation forms, which will enable students to understand clear goals and help students to summarize and reflect on themselves based on evaluation standards. Accordingly, teachers should encourage students to participate in the formulation and negotiation of evaluation standards, so as to effectively control their own learning process and gain a sense of achievement and self-confidence from it. In this process, teachers and students can share feedback on the formulation of evaluation criteria.
In this stage, students draw on the language and content of the main textbook to make products in the form of group cooperation. Thus, students work according to the previous task plan and make overall arrangements to complete the product. As a facilitator, the teacher closely follows the students' learning progress, observes carefully, gives positive feedback while providing help, fully affirms the efforts of each student, and promotes the progress ofthe class.
In the stage, before product presentation, teacher sends evaluation sheets to different groups, and students think and evaluate from multiple dimensions in the process of listening to and watching other groups' presentations. After the exhibition, the group self-evaluation, the group mutual evaluation, and the teacher evaluation are carried out in turn. Then, teachers conduct a comprehensive evaluation and put forward suggestions for improvement according to the mutual evaluation opinions of the groups, and qualitatively evaluate the results of each group, and select the best exhibition and best product. Finally, based on the opinions of the teachers, the winning teams and personnel will be determined, and the teachers will issue prizes and certificates on the spot. In the whole process of presentation, teachers are no longer the main body of classroom teaching and evaluation, and students have the real right to speak.
In the final stage, teachers should design the evaluation form from five aspects: task planning, task implementation process, group activities, display process, and self-evaluation. Students and teachers will make a final overall evaluation ofthe product. During the implementation of ITLA teaching, students are both the implementers of tasks and the subject of product evaluation, which greatly improves their classroom participation. During the evaluation process, students are always in a positive state, and the knowledge they have learned is ultimately used in problem solving (Chen & Fu, 2020).
4.5.2Implementation of ITLA Teaching
(1)Teaching Contents and Teaching Time
The teaching contents of the grade two this semester are Book5 and Book6. According to the teaching progress of the practice school, the experiment carried out for 16 weeks. The specific teaching contents of each unit are shown in Table 4-9.
Table 4-9 The Arrangement of the Teaching Contents of the Experiment
Topics of units Topics of task Task Plan
Book5 Unit1 Great
scientists Contributions of scientists Give a speech about your favourite job
Unit2 The United
Kingdom Famous sites in London Make a travel brochure
Unit3 Life in the future Prediction of the good and bad changes in the future Write a passage about life in the future
Unit4 Making the news The basic procedure of making news Make a news and do a report
Unit5 First aid First aid /Safety in the home Write first aid instructions
Book6 Unit1 Art A brief history of Western painting and Chinese art Write a letter to the art gallery committee
Unit2 Poems Different types of poems Write a poem
Unit3 A healthy life Health problem：smoking Give a speech about how to keep fit
Unit4 Global warming Global warming/Pollution Make a poster about how to protect the environment
Unit5 The power of nature Volcanoes/Crater
Lakes/Cyclones/Floods Write a passage about a tourist attraction
(2)A Teaching Sample
According to the teaching model based on ITLA teaching (see Figure 4-1), a teaching sample is represented in Table 4-10.
Table 4-10 Unit4 Global Warming of Book6
Analysis of teaching content This lesson is about Reading Part “The earth is becoming warmer-but does it matter?” from Unit4 Global Warming of Book6. (It talks about the cause of accelerating global warming—the greenhouse effect, and its effects and different views on it.)
Student analysis The students in the second grade have strong interest in English learning, strong test-taking ability, weak oral expression ability, and weak sense of teamwork. In the previous class, students have learned the words of this unit, and they have certain reading skills. Global warming is a familiar topic for students, which has laid a certain foundation for the study ofthis class.
Teaching key and difficult points Let students understand the causes and effects of global warming, and stimulate students' environmental awareness.
Teaching objectives Knowledge objectives After the class, students will be able to learn some vocabularies and expressions about global warming.
Ability objectives After the class, students will be able to improve their listening, speaking, reading and writing skills.
Emotional objectives After the class, students will be able to understand the causes and effects ofglobal warming, thereby stimulating their environmental awareness.
Duration 2 periods(80 minutes)
Teaching method Task-based Language Teaching
Teaching aids Multimedia, chalk & blackboard, etc.
Task Selecting The topic of this unit is global warming. Reading Part talks about the cause of accelerating global warming --- the greenhouse effect, its effects and the different perspectives on it. The strengthening of the greenhouse effect is mainly caused by the increase of man-made carbon dioxide emissions. Therefore, people should be advocated for low-carbon life. Thus, the task is to make a poster of environmental protection measures, and finally send a representative to share and show it orally.
Step2 Task Plan Making Teacher: The teacher divides the students into groups of 6, guides the students to design a reasonable plan, and gives appropriate guidance to the task plan of each group. At the same time, the teacher needs to show the example of the task plan.
Q1: How are you going to make your poster attractive?
Q2: How many points should the task plan include?
Students: Students work in groups to discuss task plans and assign tasks to each member.
The task plan should include task name, role assignment, and small task assignment.
Table 4-11 A Plan Example
Task Task about
Role of group member The names of group members The small tasks of group
1. Allow students to clearly understand the task plan, understand their own work, and be able to devote themselves to group production to improve their
2. In this stage, in the process of students' group discussion, teachers naturally integrate into the dialogue of group discussion, and let students think through the evaluation method of questioning and feedback, so as to achieve the purpose of promoting learning by evaluation.
Activity1:Use the video about the movie Ice Age:The Meltdown and questions to introduce the topic of this lesson, capture students' attention, and stimulate interest in English learning.
Q1: Tell me what is this video about ? (Global warming)
Activity2: Activate students' background knowledge with pictures and questions.(Teacher shows students pictures related to global warming)
Q1: Look at the pictures and what do you know about global warming？
Step1 Q2: What causes the global warming?(The use of energy and the
Text environmental pollution)
processing Q3: What things do we use energy for? (wind power, a coal power station, an oil refinery...)
Purpose: Activate students' background knowledge through questions, pictures, videos, etc., predict text content, attract students' attention, and stimulate learning interest.
Activity1: Fast reading: Allow students to obtain relevant information and summarize the main idea of the article. Q：What is the main idea of the passage?
Activity2: Careful reading: Have students sort out the structure of the article in groups and draw a mind map.
Activity3: The teacher sends the evaluation form of the mind map prepared in advance to each group, and during the presentation process, allows students to think and evaluate from multiple dimensions.
Activity4: Students work in groups to share the content of the mind map through oral expression.
Activity5: Group self-evaluation, group mutual evaluation and teacher evaluation are conducted in sequence. The evaluation form of mind map is shown in Table 4-12.
Table 4-12 The Evaluation Form of Mind Map
Level A/5 B/4 C/3 D/2 E/1
Accuracy Closely related to the theme, authentic and decent language Related to the theme, more authentic and decent language Related to the theme,minor errors in pronunciatio n, grammar, vocabulary Less related to the theme, more mistakes in pronunciati on and grammar Not relevant to the theme, very many language errors
Fluency Fluent expression, clear logic and good organization More fluent expression, clearer logic and better organization Fluent expression, no clear logic and good organization No fluent expression, clear logic and good organization No fluent expression, and clear logic, no English
Expression Emotional, creative and infectious to captivate audiences Contagious body movements and expressions Only verbal expression, certain contagious body movements and expressions Slightly infectious body movements and expressions No contagious body movements and expressions
1.Improve students' reading skills through fast reading and careful reading.
2.Through the production and evaluation of mind maps, students will be inspired to think deeply, and be able to deeply explore the causes and effects of global warming.
3.Through group cooperation, students' awareness of teamwork is cultivated, and in the process of group active exploration, their awareness of environmental protection is strengthened.
Post-reading: Product making (The group makes a poster of environmental protection measures)
Activity1: Teachers and students work out an oral presentation evaluation form (see Table 4-13), and they give feedback on the production of the form.
Table 4-13 Oral Presentation Evaluation Form
Students: Through the study of the causes and impacts of global warming in the textbook, students deeply explore environmental protection measures. According to the previous task division of labor and overall arrangement, groups make posters of environmental protection.
Teacher: Teachers guide students, keep up with their progress, and give positive feedback while offering help.
1. Teachers and students work together to formulate product evaluation standards, so that students can understand clear goals and help them to summarize and reflect according to the evaluation standards. Students participate in the development and negotiation of assessment criteria, so that they can effectively control their own learning process and gain a sense of achievement and self-confidence from it.
2. In the process of product making, students' hands-on ability and classroom participation are greatly improved.
The group will send representatives to share and display the posters in turn. Based on the oral presentation evaluation form made in the previous stage, the group will be self-evaluated and the group will evaluate each other.
The teacher evaluates the performance of each group based on the oral presentation of the evaluation form. Finally, a comprehensive evaluation is carried out, the best exhibition and the best product are selected, and prizes and certificates are issued on the spot.
1.In the whole process of presentation, teachers are no longer the main body of classroom teaching and evaluation, thus students have the real right to speak.
2.In the process of poster display, students firstly think and explore about environmental protection measures, record them in written form, and finally share them orally. Therefore, their listening, speaking, reading and writing skills are improved.
Activity: Students and teachers will make a final overall evaluation of the product, who should design the evaluation form from the five aspects, including task planning, implementation process, group activities, presentation process, and self-assessment.
Table 4-14 Final Overall Evaluation of the Product
Your name: Your group number: Leader's name:
Items Self-evaluation Your viewpoints
Task Plan Have you got a clear and well-organized plan before the task?
Process Have you followed the plan as arranged?
Group work Have you finished what you should do? Have you cooperated well with your partner?
Presentation Have you made a speech in the presentation?
yourself Do you think you have tried your best in the task?
The whole process focuses on both the learning outcome and the learning process. Multiple evaluation methods such as student self-assessment, group mutual assessment, and teacher evaluation are used comprehensively to play the role of different evaluation subjects. Moreover, in the process of ITLA teaching, the cultivation of students' language competence, thinking quality, cultural consciousness and learning ability are integrated.
V. Results and Discussion
This part mainly includes three aspects. The first is the analysis of the survey results of the current situation of English ITLA teaching in senior high school; the second is the analysis of the students' interest in English learning; and the third is the analysis of the students' English academic performance.
5.1An Analysis of the Current Situation of English ITLA Teaching in Senior High Schools
This study used a combination of quantitative research and qualitative research. Quantitative research mainly analyzes the obtained data through a questionnaire survey, so as to obtain the current situation of high school English ITLA teaching. Qualitative research refers to presenting the actual state and existing problems of ITLA teaching of English teachers in senior high school through interviews. This research mainly presents the current situation of ITLA teaching of English teachers in senior high school through the analysis of questionnaire data and interview analysis.
5.1.1Analysis of Teachers' Questionnaire Survey
(1) Analysis of the Basic Information of the Respondents
The basic information of 30 English teachers of high school who participated in the survey is summarized in Table 5-1, and the overall situation is known from the five aspects of gender, years of teaching, educational level, professional title, and grade settings. The overall status of the research subjects is displayed in Table 5-1.
Table 5-1 Basic Information of the Respondents
Basic information Type Number Percentage (%)
Gender Male 9 30
Female 21 70
Years of teaching Less than 5 years 2 6.67
6-10 years 7 23.33
11-15 years 10 33.33
16-20 years 2 6.67
More than 20 years 9 30
Educational level Undergraduate 23 76.67
Master 6 20
Doctor 0 0
Others 1 3.33
Professional title Junior 10 33.33
Intermediate 16 53.33
Senior 3 10
Others 1 3.33
Grade settings Grade 1 9 30
Grade 2 13 43.33
Grade 3 8 26.67
As shown in Table 5-1, the overall distribution of the respondents is relatively ideal. There are 9 male English teachers and 21 female English teachers, accounting for 30% and 70% respectively, which are comparable to the current gender ratio of male and female teachers in senior high schools. The teaching years of teachers participating in the survey are mainly concentrated in 6-10 years, 11-15 years, and more than 20 years. Teachers of different professional titles and teaching age groups participated in this survey. The proportion of teachers with different educational backgrounds focuses on undergraduate degrees, accounting for 76.67% of the total, and the proportion of teachers with master's degrees is 20%, which to a certain extent reflects the current educational level of English teachers in the basic education industry.
(2)Data Analysis of Teacher's Performance on Each Dimension
①Analysis of the Dimension about High School English Teachers' Understanding of ITLA
In the design of the questionnaire, the exploration of high school English teachers' understanding of ITLA is mainly divided into three levels, with a total of 7 items. The three levels are teachers' understanding of the relationship between teaching and
evaluation, the role of evaluation in classroom teaching, and teachers' recognition of the implementation of ITLA, as shown in Table 5-2. Through the analysis of the data (see Table 5-3), it can be seen that the overall understanding of ITLA by high school English teachers is relatively clear.
Table 5-2 High School English Teachers' Understanding of ITLA
Dimensions Test Contents Item
Understanding of ITLA Understanding of the relationship between teaching and evaluation Item6/Item7
The role of evaluation in classroom teaching Item8/Item9
Recognition of the implementation of ITLA Item10/Item11/Item12
Table 5-3 Statistical Results of Item 6-12
A B C D E
Item 6 36.67% 56.67% 6.67% 0% 0%
Item 7 33.33% 53.33% 13.33% 0% 0%
Item 8 33.33% 56.67% 3.33% 6.67% 0%
Item 9 33.33% 53.33% 13.33% 0% 0%
Item10 33.33% 63.33% 3.33% 0% 0%
Item11 40% 53.33% 3.33% 3.33% 0%
Item12 20% 40% 40% 0% 0%
(Note: A=strongly agree, B=somewhat agree, C=Neither agree nor disagree, D=somewhat disagree, E=strongly disagree)
Dimension1 Understanding of the Relationship between Teaching and Evaluation
In the exploration of “high school English teachers' understanding of the relationship between teaching and evaluation”, it can be seen from the teachers' answers to questions 6 and 7 that 56.67% of the respondents agree that evaluation is a part of English classroom teaching, and 53.33% of the English teachers who participated in the survey agree that classroom evaluation activities should run through the whole process of English teaching, indicating that high school English teachers have a clearer understanding of the relationship between teaching and evaluation.
Dimension2 The Role of Evaluation in Classroom Teaching
Under the concept of ITLA, the role of evaluation in the classroom should be to promote teaching, and adjust teaching and learning through the feedback of evaluation results, so as to achieve the purpose of promoting teaching and learning. In this part of the survey, it can be seen from the statistical results of teachers' answers to questions 8 and 9 that 56.67% of teachers will observe students' reflections in class and change teaching plans according to students' evaluation results. However, 6.67% of the teachers were relatively opposed, indicating that some teachers paid attention to the students' feedback, but did not make timely teaching adjustments. 53.33% of the teachers agree to promote students' learning through evaluation feedback, and 33.33% of the teachers strongly agree with this point of view, which shows that senior English teachers have a clearer understanding of the role of evaluation in classroom teaching.
Dimension3 Recognition of the Implementation of ITLA
It can be seen from the teachers' answers to questions 10, 11 and 12 that 66.63% of the teachers agree that ITLA is conducive to deepening the curriculum reform and achieving the goal of educating people in the English subject, and 33.33% of the teachers strongly agree. 93.33% of teachers believe that ITLA is helpful to guide teachers from focusing on students' learning results to focusing on students' learning process. 60% of teachers think that ITLA advocated in English Curriculum Standards for General High School (2017 Edition, Revised in 2020) is difficult to operate and implement. In a word, high school English teachers generally agree with the implementation of ITLA teaching, but there are difficulties in the implementation.
②Analysis of the Dimension about High School English Teachers' Choice of ITLA Teaching Strategies
In the survey of high school English teachers' choice of teaching strategies ITLA, a total of 4 questions were designed in the questionnaire. The results of teachers' responses in this dimension are shown in Table 5-4.
Table 5-4 Statistical Results of Item13-15
A B C D E
Item13 26.67% 40% 30% 3.33% 0%
Item14 26.67% 40% 26.67% 6.67% 0%
Item15 36.67% 40% 23.33% 0% 0%
(Note: A=strongly agree, B=somewhat agree, C=Neither agree nor disagree, D=somewhat disagree, E=strongly disagree)
As shown in Table 5-4, the results of the teachers' answers to questions 13 (I am familiar with various evaluation methods, and will choose the method that matches the evaluation objectives in actual English teaching), 14 (I am familiar with evaluation concepts such as formative evaluation, authenticity evaluation, developmental evaluation, etc., and focus on their application in classroom teaching) and 15 (I like to use various methods to evaluate students' learning), the number of people who strongly agree and agree more than 60% indicates that the overall performance of teachers is good, and most of them can use a variety of evaluations methods to evaluate student learning.
Statistical results of item 21 is displayed in figure 5-1. Question 21 in the questionnaire (In senior high school English classroom teaching, your most commonly used evaluation methods: A. Paper-and-pencil test, B. Classroom questions and comments, C. Questionnaire survey, D. Classroom practice and discussion, E. Group mutual evaluation, F. Homework, G. Student self-assessment and mutual assessment, H. Portfolio), teachers' choices focused on paper-and-pencil test (66.67%), classroom practice and discussion (86.67%), homework (80%), class questions and comments (96.67%). 60% of teachers choose student self-assessment and mutual assessment. Through data analysis, it can be seen that teachers pay more attention to evaluating students' learning through paper-and-pencil test and classroom exercises. Teachers need to play the role of students in classroom evaluation, encourage students to self-evaluate and mutual evaluation, and make students participate in classroom evaluation.
③Analysis of the Dimension about High School English Teachers' Design of ITLA Teaching
The exploration of the dimension about high school English teachers' design of ITLA teaching mainly focuses on three aspects. First is the design basis of evaluation objectives and evaluation standards (Item16, Item22). Second is the relevant elements of ITLA design (Item17, Item18, Item19). The third is the consistency of teaching objectives, learning objectives, and evaluation tasks (Item20). A total of 6 questions were designed, and the statistics are shown in Table 5-5 and Figure 5-2.
Table 5-5 Statistical Results of Item16-20
A B C D E
Item16 33.33% 43.33% 23.33% 0% 0%
Item17 43.33% 46.67% 6.67% 3.33% 0%
Item18 36.67% 50% 13.33% 0% 0%
Item19 33.33% 63.33% 3.33% 0% 0%
Item20 33.33% 43.33% 20% 3.33% 0%
( Note: A=strongly agree, B=somewhat agree, C=Neither agree nor disagree, D=somewhat disagree, E=strongly disagree)
Figure 5-2 Histogram of Statistical Results of Item 22
As displayed in Table 5-5, it can be seen that most teachers agree that the development level of the core competences of the English subject and the English academic quality requirements should be used to determine the objectives and evaluation standards of English learning in question 16. In the question 22 on how to design the evaluation in teaching design, 70% of the teachers chose to design the evaluation content and method according to English Curriculum Standards for General High School (2017 Edition, Revised in 2020), and 83.33% of the teachers chose the paper-and-pencil test with moderate difficulty by referring to the teaching-aid books.
In general, most high school English teachers have a certain understanding of ITLA teaching, and consider the relevant elements of ITLA design comprehensively. They pay attention to the consistency of teaching objectives, learning objectives, and evaluation tasks. They focus on evaluating students' learning through pre-class testing, timely evaluation during class, and post-class testing. However, there is a lack of standardized teaching design based on ITLA.
④Analysis of the Dimension about High School English Teachers' Implementation of ITLA Teaching
In the design of the questionnaire, the exploration of this dimension is mainly divided into two levels, the influencing factors of ITLA implementation (Item23) and practical difficulties of ITLA implementation (Item24). There are 2 questions in total.
As shown in Figure 5-3, 90% of teachers chose “teaching time”, 80% of teachers chose “level of students”, and 90% of teachers believed that “exam pressure” affected their choice of ITLA teaching. For the influencing factors, characteristics of English subjects, school's requirements, and self-understanding of the concept of evaluation are 50%, 60%, and 66.67%, respectively. Through data analysis, it can be seen that the factors that affect teachers' choice of ITLA teaching include various aspects, and the three aspects of level of students, teaching time, and exam pressure are particularly influential.
Dimension 2 Practical Difficulties of ITLA Implementation
Figure 5-4 Bar Chart of Statistical Results of Item 24
After investigating the difficulties faced by senior high school English teachers in implementing ITLA teaching, the data from the questionnaire statistics (see Figure 5-4) show that tight teaching time and exam pressure are the biggest difficulties for teachers in implementing ITLA teaching, and 86.67% of teachers choose these two options. In addition, teaching pressure, inadequate understanding of evaluation concepts, student levels, and teaching policies are also key factors that affect teachers' implementation of ITLA teaching.
(3)Summary of the Results ofthe Teacher's Questionnaire
By analyzing results of the teacher's questionnaire, it can be seen that high school English teachers have a high degree of recognition of ITLA teaching, can correctly understand the relationship between teaching and evaluation, and can make appropriate choices for teaching strategies. In practice, teachers' overall performance of ITLA teaching design is slightly worse than other dimensions, and they think that it is difficult to implement ITLA teaching. On the whole, it can be seen that high school English teachers agree with the ITLA concept proposed by English Curriculum Standards for General High School (2017 Edition, Revised in 2020), but there are great difficulties in implementing it. The actual factors that affect high school English teachers' implementation of ITLA teaching are mainly the learning level of students, teaching time, examinations pressure. In the implementation of ITLA teaching, there are some problems such as monotonous evaluation method, single evaluation subject, and unsystematic and non-standard design of ITLA teaching.
The above data analysis is the answer to the research question “What is the current situation and problems of the implementation of ITLA in English teaching in senior high school?”.
5.1.2Results and Analysis of Teacher's Interviews
(1)Analysis ofthe Basic Information of the Interviewees
The subjects of this interview are nine high school English teachers in the practical school. Three teachers were interviewed at each grade in the high school, and the interviews were conducted around two questions.
(2)Record and Analysis ofTeacher's Interview
Q1. Can you talk about your understanding ofthe connotation ofITLA?
Table 5-6 Record of Teacher's Interview of Q1
Interviewees Record of teacher's answer
Teacher1 Teaching is the teacher's usual classroom teaching; learning is the student's learning; evaluation is the teacher's reflection after class and the detection of the teaching effect.
Teacher2 In my opinion, first of all, for “teaching”, teachers are required to start from the “curriculum standard”, “syllabus”, “textbook”, etc. before class, and accurately grasp the teaching objectives, teaching content and teaching important points of a lesson or a unit. Teachers should plan the teaching steps and reflect on classroom teaching after class. “Learning” is the effective learning of students under the guidance of teachers. “Evaluation” is a new understanding of teaching and the purpose is to better promote teaching, which can be carried out in various ways and in various dimensions.
Teacher3 “Teaching” is the teacher's teaching, including the content of teaching, the thinking of teaching, the method of doing questions, and teaching students how to take the test. “Learning” means students' classroom learning, summarizing and reflecting after class, and doing homework, which is also a learning process.“Evaluation” is the student's evaluation.
Teacher4 Teaching is the teacher's classroom teaching; learning is the students' learning in the classroom and the practice of consolidating after the class; evaluation is the questions in the classroom and the feedback of the students' homework.
Teacher5 Teaching is the design of classroom teaching and the organization of teaching content by teachers. Learning is the self-directed learning of students and the guidance of teachers to students' learning. The main methods of evaluation are classroom questions and tests.
Teacher6 Teaching includes many aspects. Teachers need to understand the situation of learning and teach according to students' learning needs; learning includes students' learning in class and students' own review of what they have learned after class; Evaluation includes the evaluation of students' learning and teaching effects, mainly based on tests and questions.
Teacher7 Teaching is the teacher's teaching, learning is the student's learning, and evaluation is the teacher's feedback on the teaching effect through the students' homework and grades.
Teacher8 Simply put, it is the teaching of teachers, the learning of students, and the evaluation of teaching effectiveness.
Teacher9 Teaching, teachers should comprehensively consider a variety of factors, including learning situation, teaching resources, subject characteristics, etc.; learning, students' mastery and understanding of knowledge through teachers' teaching; evaluation,testing students' learning effects through usual examinations.
As shown in Table 5-6, most of the teachers interviewed have a fairly good understanding of “teaching”, “learning” and “evaluation”, but there is basically no teacher mentioning the concept of “integration”. Overall, most of teachers interviewed believed that “teaching” refers to all aspects related to teachers' teaching, “learning” refers to activities related to students' learning, and “evaluation” is to feedback the effect of teaching and students' learning through tests, questions and homework, but they do not mention that the three should be combined to achieve the integration.
Q2. Do you implement the ITLA teaching concepts in your teaching? If yes, please talk about how you designed the ITLA instructional design.
Table 5-7 Record of Teacher's Interview of Q2
Interviewees Record of teacher's answer
Teacher1 Yes, but it is not very obvious, and it is not systematized. It needs to be desystematized for a long time.
Teacher2 I definitely implement the ITLA teaching concepts in my teaching, because teaching means growth. My teaching design is based on the above knowledge.
Teacher3 Yes, it is reflected from the students' academic performance, and the questions asked in the class. The teacher makes some evaluations, and other students can also make some evaluations, which will permeate the teaching process. In the teaching process, both “teaching” and “learning” will be involved, and “evaluation” may not be clearly manifested in the teaching design, but will be raised flexibly in the classroom.
Teacher4 No, high school teaching is stressful, and more evaluations are made through paper-and-pencil tests and classroom questions.
Teacher5 No, it is mainly a paper-and-pencil test and a way of asking and commenting.
Teacher6 No, it is still mainly based on tests and classroom questions.
Teacher7 No, it is mainly oral feedback and questions from teachers in the classroom, and there is no ITLA design.
Teacher8 Yes, the evaluation is not very obvious in the classroom. Due to my lack of understanding of ITLA, I did not carry out a detailed design.
Teacher9 No, classroom evaluation is still based on traditional questions and tests.
As displayed in Table 5-7, among the teachers interviewed, some teachers implement the teaching concept of integrating teaching, learning and evaluation in their teaching. However, there is no systematic design of ITLA teaching, and it is not very obvious in the classroom. Some teachers mainly focus on traditional teaching, and the evaluation method is relatively simple.
(3)Summary of Interview Results
To sum up, it can be seen from the teacher interviews that most teachers have a relatively good understanding of “teaching”, “learning” and “evaluation”, but they did not mention that they should combine the three to achieve the unity of the three, to achieve integration of teaching, learning and evaluation. Some teachers implement the ITLA teaching concept in their teaching, but there is no systematic design for ITLA teaching, and it is not very obvious in the classroom. This shows that the ITLA teaching concept has been accepted by some English teachers in high school, but how to implement it is a difficult problem that needs to be solved urgently. Accordingly, the teaching status of ITLA interviewed above has laid a certain realistic foundation for this research.
5.2Analysis of Students' Interest in English Learning
The questionnaire is used to test the students' interest in English learning. The students in both classes did this questionnaire before and after the experiment and the data collected is analyzed to verify the change of students' interest in English learning before and after the experiment.
5.2.1Analysis of Students' Interest in English Learning Before the Experiment
The results of the questionnaire survey showed that most of the students in the two classes had a negative attitude towards English learning before the experiment, and there was no significant difference in the students' interest in English learning. 108 students participated in the experiment (54 students for both EC and CC), and the Table 5-8 shows the details of students' interest in English learning in the two classes. Then, in order to ensure validity and reliability, students' interest in English learning was compared before the experiment, and SPSS24.0 software was used to conduct independent sample T-test. The results are as follows.
Table 5-8 Independent Sample T-test for the Pre-test of Students' Interest in EC and CC
Dimensions Class Number Mean Std. deviation Standard error of mean t p
Understanding EC 54 4.13 2.25624 0.31053 -0.372 0.597
the function CC 54 4.15 2.03572 0.27768 -0.354 0.556
Feeling of EC 54 3.28 1.46587 0.10042 -0.252 0.648
pleasure CC 54 3.21 1.65369 0.10053 -0.221 0.682
Engagement of EC 54 2.44 1.72522 0.18963 0.063 0.756
learning CC 54 2.47 1.80563 0.17574 0.079 0.785
Expanding EC 54 2.13 1.14289 0.05794 0.283 0.743
knowledge CC 54 2.10 1.08974 0.06943 0.285 0.756
Application EC 54 2.05 1.77472 0.17442 0.158 0.672
CC 54 2.07 1.66843 0.20513 0.169 0.654
As shown in Table 5-8, the P value is higher than 0.05 in each dimension, indicating that there is no significant difference between the students' interest in English learning in the two classes before the experiment.
Among the five dimensions of learning interest, the average value of understanding the function ranks first, which indicates that students in EC and CC have a clear understanding of the role of learning English. They know English is a language and a medium that can help them make more friends, pursue further education, travel abroad, and find a decent job in the future. However, they are reluctant to engage in learning activities even though they know they can benefit a lot from learning English. The averages for engagement of learning, expanding knowledge, and application are relatively low, especially for application which shows that students rarely put into practice what they learn in class. Because there is not enough language output, students' language ability cannot be improved, nor can they gain a sense of achievement from the learning process. As a result, students' interest in learning and motivation to learn will be seriously reduced.
Through the analysis of the questionnaire, it is not difficult to find that the English class is not so interesting that the students cannot concentrate on the class. Due to the pressure of final exams, sometimes English class is a burden for students, thus they cannot keep their enthusiasm for learning. Moreover, their classroom participation and use of English after class is less.
5.2.2Analysis of Students' Interest in English Learning After the Experiment
After the experiment, the same questionnaire was distributed to the students. Then compare the English learning interest of the two classes to test whether ITLA teaching is conducive to the improvement of students' interest in learning. After the experiment, the students' interest in English learning was compared, and the independent sample T-test was carried out with SPSS24.0 software. The results are as follows.
Table 5-9 Independent Sample T-test for the Post-test of Students' Interest in EC and CC
Dimensions Class Number Mean Std. deviation Standard error of mean t p
Understanding EC 54 4.35 1.63524 0.27052 0.738 0.406
the function CC 54 4.24 1.64879 0.20301
Feeling of EC 54 4.45 1.14771 0.09526 23.954 0.001
pleasure CC 54 3.30 1.10532 0.09004
Engagement EC 54 3.68 1.72973 0.17937 24.435 0.001
of learning CC 54 2.87 1.83743 0.17563
Expanding EC 54 3.36 1.20051 0.05879 3.317 0.065
knowledge CC 54 2.30 1.21123 0.05067
Application EC 54 2.85 1.83768 0.21652 3.466 0.021
CC 54 2.27 2.00476 0.21753
As displayed in Table 5-9, after the teaching of ITLA, the P value of EC and CC in
the three aspects of feeling of pleasure, engagement of learning and application is less than0.05, indicating that there are significant differences before and after the experiment in these three aspects. The average value of feeling of pleasure (4.45) in EC is the highest among the five dimensions, which indicates that ITLA teaching has changed students' attitudes towards English. Except the average value of understanding the function is lower than CC, the other four aspects are higher than CC. The average value of engagement of learning (3.68) shows that students' classroom participation is on the rise, the teaching activities in the classroom can attract students' attention, and they can get happiness and a sense of accomplishment from the English classroom. The average value of expanding knowledge and application is slightly higher than before. When students can immerse themselves in the classroom and gain a sense of achievement, they are naturally willing to apply what they have learned and learn more English knowledge.
The above data analysis is the answer to research question “Can English teaching based on ITLA increase students' interest in English learning?”.
5.3Analysis of Students' English Academic Performance
Before and after practice, the English academic performance of students in EC and CC was investigated through test scores of first stage and final scores, and SPSS24.0 software was used to conduct independent sample T-test. Then analyze the English academic performance of the students in EC and CC before and after practice, and study the impact of ITLA teaching on students' English academic performance.
5.3.1Pre-test of Students' English Academic Performance
Based on the English learning results obtained in the first stage exam before practice, a pre-test survey was conducted on the English academic performance of EC and CC. The results are displayed in Table 5-10.
Table 5-10 Independent Sample T-test on English Academic
Performance of Pre-test in EC and CC
M n t df P
EC 60.48 54 -0.37 93.93 0.596
CC 62.11 54
As displayed in Table 5-10, the average score of the EC in the pre-test is 60.48, and the average score of the CC is 62.11. The score of CC is 1.63 higher than that of EC, P=0.596 (>0.05) for the significant analysis, indicating that there is no significant difference between EC and CC before ITLA teaching practice.
5.3.2Post-test of Students' English Academic Performance
After the ITLA teaching practice, a post-test survey of the English academic performance of the EC and CC was conducted through the final examination. The
results are displayed in Table 5-11.
Table 5-11 Independent Sample T-test on English Academic Performance of
Post-test in EC and CC
M n t df p
EC 68.54 54 0.54 94 0.048
CC 57.18 54
As shown in Table 5-11, the average score of EC after ITLA teaching practice is 68.54, the average score of CC is 57.18, and the average score of post-test EC exceeds CC 11.36. Significant analysis P value=0.048 (<0.05), indicating that there is a significant difference in the scores of EC and CC after ITLA teaching practice, and the effect of EC implementing ITLA teaching is significant. According to the above data analysis, it can be concluded that the teaching based on ITLA has a significant effect on the improvement of students' academic performance, indicating that the teaching design process based on ITLA proposed in this study is effective.
The above data analysis is the answer to research question “Can English teaching based on ITLA improve students' English academic performance?”.
In this part, major findings, implications, and limitations will be introduced in turn. Finally, based on the limitations of this study, recommendations for further research will be put forward.
This study mainly explores ITLA-related theoretical research and teaching model of ITLA, applies it in practice and analyzes the results of practice. Based on analyzing the data collected, the major findings were summarized as follows.
(1) From the perspective of current situation of ITLA teaching, English teachers in high school have a high degree of recognition of ITLA, are able to understand the relationship correctly between teaching and evaluation, and make appropriate choices of teaching strategies of ITLA. In addition, although the teaching concept of ITLA has been accepted by some English teachers in high school, they still think that there are certain difficulties to implement ITLA due to some practical factors such as learning level of students, teaching time, examination pressure, etc. Additionally, in the process of evaluation, there are problems such as monotonous evaluation method, single evaluation subject, and unsystematic and non-standard design of ITLA. Furthermore, students' participation in the classroom is relatively low, they lost passion and inspiration in English learning, and their English academic performance is generally poor.
(2) In terms of practical effect, by comparing the English learning interest and English academic performance of the EC and the CC before and after the experiment, it is found that the teaching based on ITLA can significantly increase students' English learning interest and improve their English academic performance. Obviously, it shows that the teaching practice of this research has a certain effect.
Based on the above results, a conclusion is drawn that English teaching based on ITLA can facilitate students' learning and improve teachers' instructions in high school, to a certain extent, which is worthy of spreading and studying in depth.
Based on the research on ITLA at home and abroad and the research findings of this study, the following implications about the implementation of ITLA are put forward.
Firstly, teachers' understanding and recognition of ITLA is the key to implementing the concept of ITLA. In the results of the current situation of ITLA teaching survey, it is found that most teachers do not understand the concept thoroughly, let alone effectively implement it. Therefore, teachers should change the evaluation concept, improve their evaluation awareness and evaluation literacy, and promote the implementation of the ITLA concept.
Secondly, in the process of ITLA teaching, teachers should pay attention to the diversification of evaluation methods, the multi-dimensionality of evaluation contents, and the pluralism of evaluation subjects, and use various evaluation methods such as student self-evaluation, mutual evaluation, group evaluation, and teacher evaluation to evaluate students' learning. In this way, evaluation can run through the whole teaching process to achieve the goal of “promoting learning and teaching by evaluation”. At the same time, it is necessary to let students participate in the formulation and negotiation of evaluation standards, so that students can change from the recipient of evaluation to the subject and active participant of it. This can greatly improve students' classroom participation and improve their interest and motivation in English learning.
Lastly, during the research process, it is found that it takes a lot of time to design lesson plan based on ITLA and teachers prepare lessons and teach by themselves which are not suitable for educational needs. Therefore, in teaching, it is necessary to give full play to the advantages of the team work for the purpose of creating high-quality classrooms and promoting the improvement of their teaching skills.
This research has made some progress in the theory and practice of ITLA, but due to the limitations of various factors, this research also has many shortcomings.
First, the scope of this research practice is relatively small, and it is only practiced in one school of one region. Owning to the different teaching levels and teaching conditions in each region, the universality of this teaching research needs to be considered.
Second, due to the limitation of practice time and personal energy, only two classes were selected for practice research this time. Because of the small sample size and practice content, there may be large errors in the research results obtained in practice.
Third, the schools in this practice are key high schools at the municipal level. The research results of the ITLA teaching status cannot represent the teaching status and teaching level of the overall high school, and the learning ability of the students is also difficult to represent the level of the overall high school students.
Fourth, because of the limited practice time, this research only conducts practical research on some of the contents of Book5 and Book6, so the applicability of this study to the overall high school English needs to be considered.
6.4Recommendations for Further Research
Based on the research limitations mentioned above, some recommendations for future research of ITLA teaching are put forward.
Firstly, the research subjects of this study is only 30 teachers and 108 students in one school, and the sample size is too small. Hence, it is hoped that future research can increase the sample size, expand the scope of the study and the study region, so as to increase the credibility and universal applicability of research.
Secondly, in this study, the experiment is only implemented for 10 weeks, and the teaching contents of the experiment is only from Book5 and Book6. Obviously, the time and contents of the experiment are not enough. Accordingly, in future research of ITLA teaching, it is suggested that researchers can spend more time on experiments, take the entire textbooks of high school into account, and increase the universal applicability of the research in English teaching of high school.
Thirdly, the main purpose of the research on ITLA is to apply it to practical teaching to promote learning and teaching by assessment. However, the amount of practical research on ITLA is still limited, so it is hoped that scholars can shift their attention from theoretical research to practical research in future research to promote the implementation of ITLA.
Finally, it is suggested that the majority of researchers can continue to learn new knowledge, change their ideas, participate in ITLA research and apply it to teaching practice, so as to achieve truly effective teaching. Consequently, students develop the key competences of English subjects in the process of learning English and become innovative talents needed in the new era.
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