摘 要 iii
List of Tables III
List of Charts III
Chapter One Introduction 1
1.1Research Background 1
1.2Research Objectives and Significance 3
1.2.1Research Objectives 3
1.2.2Research Significance 4
1.3Overall Structure of the Thesis 5
Chapter Two Literature Review 7
2.1Key Notions 7
2.1.1Moral Education 7
2.1.2Integration of Moral Education in English Teaching 8
2.2Previous Studies Home and Abroad 8
2.2.1Related Studies of Moral Education at Home 8
2.2.2Related Studies of Moral Education abroad 11
2.3Theoretical Basis of This Study 13
2.3.1Theory of Moral Education 13
2.3.2Theory of Moral Education in English Subject 14
Chapter Three Research Methodology 16
3.1Research Questions 16
3.2Research Participants 16
3.3Research Instruments 18
3.3.3Classroom Observation 22
3.4Research Procedures 22
3.4.1Distribution of Questionnaires 22
3.4.2Implementation of Interview 23
3.4.3Classroom Observation 24
3.5Data Collection and Analysis 24
3.5.1Data Collection 24
3.5.2Data Analysis 25
Chapter Four Research Results and Discussion 26
4.1Current Situation of Moral Education in Art Schools and Learning Needs of
Different Groups of Students 26
4.1.1Current Situation of Moral Education in Senior High School of Art ... 26
4.2Learning Needs of Different Groups of Students 33
4.3Affecting Factors of the Current Situation of Moral Education 42
Chapter Five Conclusion 52
5.1Major Findings 52
5.2Pedagogical Implications 53
5.3Limitations and Suggestions 55
Appendix One Questionnaires 62
Appendix Two The Outline of the Interview 68
Appendix Three Classroom Observation Scale 69
Appendix Four Classroom Observation Cases 70
About the Author 80
List of Tables
Table 3.1 The Information of Interviewed School Teachers 17
Table 3.2 Dimensions of Students' Questionnaires 20
Table 3.3 Dimensions of Teachers' Questionnaires 20
Table 4.1 Class Observation Case: On the Road 37
Table 4.2 Class Observation Case: Family matters 39
Table 4.3 Class Observation Case: Breaking Boundaries 41
List of Charts
Chart 4.1 Integration in Various Subjects 28
Chart 4.2 Moral Situation of the Students 29
Chart 4.3 Teachers' Ways of Moral Education 30
Chart 4.4 Ways of Moral Education in Students' Eyes 31
Chart 4.5 Effectiveness of Moral Education 33
Chart 4.6 Students' Learning Needs of English Learning 356
Chart 4.7 Students' Interest in Western Custom and Culture 367
Chart 4.8 School's Policy on Moral Education 434
Chart 4.9 Understanding of Moral Education Policy 445
Chart 4.10 Relationship between English Teaching and Moral Education 456
Chart 4.11 Students' Attitude towards Moral Education 467
Chart 4.12 Integration of Moral Education in Various Ways 48
Chart 4.13 Amounts of Teachers' Implementation of Moral Education 49
Chart 4.14 Relationship between English Teaching and Moral Education in Teachers'
Chapter One Introduction
In this chapter, the author mainly introduces three parts: research background, research objectives and significance and the overall structure of the thesis.
With the rapid development of economy, people are getting more and more educated. But that doesn't mean that people's moral standards have reached a high level, which has a lot to do with education, especially with school education. Students' all-round development of morality, intelligence, physique, beauty and labor is the goal of the development of school education. Thus, moral education comes in the first place. But there are many problems in moral education in the teaching and learning process, especially in English language learning and teaching in our country. The combination of emotional education and moral education in senior high school English teaching is the key to realize the goal of moral education and it is also the effective link of cultivating the core quality of English subject (Gao Pan 2016).
In the traditional way of English teaching, students and teachers pay much attention to memorize the words and phrases, some sentence patterns and some important grammar points so that students can get a higher grade in their English exams. And many students and teachers even think that if a student can know the meaning of words and phrases and know how to write a passage on his own, it means that the student is good at learning English. They ignore the true meaning and the significance of learning English. Under this kind of thought, the teachers are not interested in looking for better ways for the students to learn English, so many students think that learning English means reciting words and it's very boring and very hard. As a result, the grades of students' English learning cannot be improved instead they may be lower under the pressure of a large amount of words and expressions to memorize. And in senior high school of art, more than half of the students choose to give up learning English, instead they choose to learn Japanese for a higher grade in college entrance examination.
In English Curriculum Standards for general High School published in 2017, the educationists put forward the concept of core literacy. Core literacy is the concentrated reflection of the value of subject education. Through subject learning, students gradually form the correct value concept, essential character and key ability. The core literacy of English includes language ability, cultural awareness, thinking quality and learning ability. Among the four parts, cultural awareness and thinking quality are important components of moral education. The definition of cultural awareness is the comprehension of Chinese and foreign cultures and the recognition of other excellent cultures. It is the cross-cultural cognition, attitude and behavior orientation of students under the background of globalization. Cultural awareness embodies the value orientation of core literacy of English discipline. The cultivation of cultural awareness helps students to strengthen national identity and feelings of family and country. It can strengthen cultural confidence and foster a sense of community with a shared future for mankind. It can make the students learn how to do things and how to be a true man, and finally grow into a person with civilized accomplishment and social responsibility.
Thinking quality refers to the logical, critical and innovative thinking ability and level. The thinking quality embodies the mental characteristics of core literacy of English. The cultivation of thinking quality helps to improve students' ability to analyze and solve problems, so that they can observe and understand the world from a cross-cultural perspective, so as to have a correct evaluation of things.
From above, it can be seen that the two dimensions of core literacy aim at improving students' moral education level. They even imply that sometimes moral education is much more important than just knowing some language points.
However, in the era of exam-oriented education, many people pay more attention to the grades instead of the students' ability and quality. While learning English, the only way used currently is to recite words, sentences, passages, grammar points and so on. English is a world language and it is the official language in the most countries in the world. Though English is just a language, it is the embodiment of a culture and a way of thinking. While learning English, we should get to know the culture of western countries, such as their customs, their festivals, and their dietary habits. We can know the difference between China and other developed countries.
In the new teaching material published by Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, the professors divide the topic of the passage into three parts of thematic context including human and nature, human and society and human and self. In the part of human and nature, students should have the awareness of protecting the environment and realize that we human should live in harmony with nature. In the topic of human and society, as a member of the society, students should know the importance of working hard and make contributions to the society. In the topic of human and self, knowing that trying one's best to improve oneself is very important, students should study hard about knowledge and quality and so on so that they can be a better person in the future as they dream of.
1.2Research Objectives and Significance
Under the circumstance of the rapid development of economy, the education of the students focuses more on the degrees and the grades. However, the development of the society needs students who develop in an all-round way, in case there would be students of high degrees but low qualities. Nowadays, the education system is facing the curriculum reform, and the teaching materials and teaching theories are refreshing 3
rapidly. This thesis aims to demonstrate and develop the moral education function of English teaching, give full play to the promoting role of moral education of all subjects in the implementation of school moral education, improve teachers' moral education awareness of subject, make them consciously carry out moral education to students, and improve students' moral education.
Therefore, this study takes a senior high school of art as the research object. Some students and teachers are required to finish questionnaires and some of them have been interviewed. Through observing classroom conditions, this study tries to explore the different ways of implementing moral education. Specifically, this study aims to answer the following three questions: (1) What is the current situation of moral education in English teaching of senior high school of art? (2) What are the different needs of moral education between art students and ordinary students in senior high school of art? (3) What factors affect the integration of moral education?
The study on the integration of moral education in English teaching in senior high school of art can help us to improve English teaching on the basis of science, on the basis of culture and on the basis of students love for English.
First, it can strengthen the understanding of moral education in English learning in both teachers and students. Moral education can improve the quality of a school, and raise the status of the school. Only when all the leaders, teachers and students are aware of the significance of moral education in the class can students make great achievements in study.
Second, it can help the students think critically in both their study and future career. The critical thinking ability is very important for the students. When they are faced with something, with critical thinking ability, they can tell whether it is correct or wrong, and they can know what they should do to get out of trouble or difficulties. Moral education is a tool for them to open their eyes to observe the world.
Third, teachers can summarize teaching experience through different aspects and finally find the suitable way to help the students achieve their life goals. In other words, teachers can teach the students according to their talent. In addition, teachers can also combine knowledge teaching with quality education. The integration of moral education is not about being unconventional. It is the embodiment of the essence and law of education. If teachers unconsciously add moral education to classes, they can not only make their class lively but also make students more involved in the class, so that they can improve their grades to achieve their goal and help the students form correct values in world, life and evaluation.
1.3Overall Structure of the Thesis
In general, this thesis can be divided into five parts:
The first part of this thesis is the introduction section, which introduces that the current social moral level is worrying and introduces the low efficiency of school moral education, and then briefly introduces the purpose, significance and basic structure of the thesis.
The second part is about the literature review, mainly introduces the domestic and foreign research on moral education. It also introduces the theoretical basis of moral education integration in English teaching.
The third part is the methods and questions of the research, including the investigation of the current situation of moral education integration in English teaching, taking a senior high school of art as an example. To investigate the implementation of moral education in English teaching, the survey is carried out from three aspects: English teachers' and students' awareness of moral integration, the implementation of moral integration in classroom teaching and after-class activities, and the survey results are analyzed through the survey data.
The fourth part is the research results and reason analysis of low efficiency of moral education. It mainly expounds from three aspects: First, the theoretical knowledge of subject moral education integration is deficient, and the practice of subject moral education integration is lack of theoretical guidance. Second, the phenomenon of exam-oriented learning is serious, both teachers' teaching and students' learning have exam-oriented tendency. Thirdly, some English teachers' teaching methods are single, and the teaching emotion is exhausted. As a result, moral education has lost its way. By observing and evaluating lessons, analyzing lesson examples, analyzing the problems existing in moral education integration, and putting forward the suggestion teaching design, it includes fully exploring the content of moral education in teaching materials, embodiments of the moral integration through the design of each link in English reading, grammar and vocabulary teaching cases, and embodiments of the moral integration in teachers' teaching by words and actions, the design of extracurricular activities and the construction of class culture.
The fifth part is the conclusion part of this thesis, mainly describes the conclusion of this thesis and introduces the shortcomings in the research process so as to put forward some suggestions based on the current situation of moral education integration in high school English teaching.
Chapter Two Literature Review
In order to know more about moral education, the concept of morality should be clear. The field of emotion and its influence on language learning have been a hot topic in language teaching for many years (Arnold 2000). In China, “Morality” is originally very clear, and it is the part of moral. But in fact, the concept of “ morality ” is larger, including ideological, political, moral, mental health, and so on. In the daily moral education work, apart from basically intellectual education, physical education and aesthetic education, the rest are all belong to moral education.
As for the concept of education, it should contain two meanings: one is edification, the other is the “self-transformation” of the educated.
Moral education is to carry out ideological, political, moral, legal and psychological health education to students. It is an important part of school education. Moral education is closely related to intellectual education, physical education, aesthetic education and labor education. It is of great importance in guiding, driving and guaranteeing the healthy growth of students and school work. Moral education includes many aspects including national spirit education, ideal faith education, moral quality, civilized behavior education, law-abiding education and mental health education. In other words, “Lide” refers to “developing great morality”, “guarding public morality” and “guarding personal morality”. “Educating people” includes moral education, intellectual education, physical education, aesthetic education and labor education ( Xue and Li 2021).
2.1.2Integration of Moral Education in English Teaching
The integration of moral education means that the educator consciously transmits the correct values, noble sentiments and good moral qualities to the educational objects, so that they will be influenced imperceptibly. The integration of moral education by English subjects refers to the integration of moral education goals and contents through the teaching of English language knowledge, culture in the process of the comprehensive ability of using English language, and also is an English teacher by mining and refining English teaching content of moral education value, the various integrated application has the permeation of moral education teaching methods such as lectures, dialogue, discussion, the use of appropriate teaching language, maintaining a positive emotional attitude, good models with good teaching behavior, creating a harmonious classroom atmosphere, developing a good teacher-student relationship. English teachers should apply the content of moral education integration into classroom teaching so as to achieve the goal of “improving students' moral cognition, exercising the students moral will and moral feelings and cultivating students' moral behavior”.
Therefore, moral integration is becoming more and more important. In this process, correct values are formed, establishing a more systematic and scientific understanding of society (Chong Zhao 2020) .
2.2Previous Studies Home and Abroad
2.2.1Related Studies of Moral Education at Home
Confucianism first emerged acting as a system for education. Pre-qin Confucianism addressed the importance of human, affirming the initiative in the pursuit of morality, and it is proved that it was important in the cultivation of self-discipline in morality (Chen and Cao 2019). In the past 40 years, the moral education in China and its development path have been explored through many important perspectives, from political service to morality, from public norms to social moral requirements, and from personal cultivation to the practice of personal virtues. These have gradually formed a new paradigm of the combination of morality, social morality and personal virtues (Xie and Xu and Wang 2019).
In recent years, the research of moral education integration in senior high school English teaching has received the attention of experts and scholars. Ministry of Education formulated English curriculum standards for senior high schools in accordance with the general high school curriculum reform spirits and requirements. It emphasized the main purpose of English curriculum reform in senior high school is to establish a new teaching concept of foreign language education so that curriculum setting and curriculum content can be with the times, and can be basic and selective. Teachers should establish a flexible curriculum objective system so that they can make it more instructive to English teaching in different stages and different regions. They should also establish a diversified and open English course evaluation system and make evaluation become an organic part of teaching. Establishing standard English teaching material system can ensure the smooth implementation of English courses.
Wang Mei (2004) thought that moral education is related to the success or failure of quality education and moral education can help students set up the correct goal of learning English so that it can promote English learning. The improvement of English level can provide more space for moral education. English teaching content, teaching process and teaching evaluation are all good opportunities for moral education. The example of English teachers can get twice the result with half the effort. The integration of moral education in English teaching has strong operability and feasibility. Wang thought that the strategy of moral education in teaching is to be friends with students and cultivate good relationship with the students. By assigning tasks to the students, teachers can cultivate students to bear hardships and stand hard work, and make the students get the spirit of daring to explore and good qualities of unity and mutual assistance.
Ji Lichun and Wu Qiaofei (2010) pointed out that in the current middle school English teaching, moral anomie exists in middle school students such as superficial moral knowledge, lacking of moral emotion, moral misconduct. Exploring for the reasons, the author can find that there is negative influence of unhealthy social atmosphere on young people. And there is neglect of moral education in schools and families. In terms of teaching work reality, teachers should strengthen the integration from many aspects as following, teachers themselves, teaching contents, teaching methods and teaching procedure. Only when teachers do things from above can they effectively improve the moral quality of students.
Guo Yiqin (2012) thought the first step of integration of moral education in English teaching is the preparatory link which is conducive to creating a positive atmosphere of study, creating a good moral environment, and guiding students to establish correct ideological and moral concepts. This requires teachers to make clear emotional goals for students before the course on the premise of being fully familiar with the teaching materials, and guide students to prepare with questions and in a targeted way, so as to promote the organic unity of the instrumental and humanistic nature of English courses
Wang Lixia (2019) believed that in the process of English teaching, the pressure of college entrance examination makes some English teachers focus on improving students' scores and neglect the moral education and the improvement of students' core qualities. Some academic teachers overemphasize the advantages of foreign culture in teaching, which is not conducive to the dissemination of excellent Traditional Chinese culture.
Shen Lijuan (2021) stated that moral education for students in senior high school English teaching is an inevitable requirement to improve the core quality of English subject under the background of the new era. It's an important means for teachers to implement the fundamental task of moral cultivation, and the only way to train builders and successors of socialism. In order to integrate moral education into English teaching efficiently, teachers should create a good moral environment and guide students to form the habit of self-study before class. They should actively organize teaching activities in class, pay attention to students' ideological trends, effectively carry out moral education and improve students' comprehensive quality. After class, guide students to summarize what they have learned and cultivate students' critical thinking. And teachers should create conditions for students' extracurricular practice activities and improve students' labor ability. Teachers should integrate moral education into every link of English teaching, improve students' cultural awareness and thinking quality while developing their language ability and learning ability, and fulfill the fundamental task of moral education.
From all above, it can be clearly known that in senior high school English teaching, knowledge transfer is the starting point and the integration of moral education is the entry point. Students are the subject of moral education and teachers are the leaders in the moral education process.
2.2.2Related Studies of Moral Education abroad
As early as the 17th century, western educators began to pay attention to the importance of integration of moral education. Comenius once stated separating the cultivation of secular morality from religious education as an independent part, and put it before religious education which has to be a breakthrough in the theory of moral education.
Since the early 20th century, more and more foreign experts and scholars devote themselves to the study of moral education from different theoretical perspectives. And it covers a wide range of fields. Through combining psychology, education and sociology, moral education space can be expanded to all aspects of students' life. It is very instructive and practical. It plays a decisive role in regulating the social moral system. Among them are representative theories, such as pragmatism represented by Dewey, Rath and Simon (1966)'s theory of value clarification, Kohlberg (1981)'s theory of moral Cognition and development.
In terms of moral education methods, foreign countries also attach great importance to the integration of moral education in discipline teaching. In the subject teaching of some developed countries, the goal, content and integration mode of moral education are very distinctive.
In America, the schools pay more attention to history teaching and combine the historical facts with moral rules respectively. While having geography classes, the teachers will introduce the abundance and beauty of the nature at the same time teachers also educate students on the sense of crisis, so that when there is danger, the students can know what to do and how to protect the advantages of the country and himself. The students are also be educated about human rights, equality, democracy and freedom unconsciously. The teachers also encourage students to advocate science and pursue truth with the anecdotes of famous natural scientists. All in all, they strive to cultivate American citizens with healthy personality.
In conclusion, at abroad there are many ways of applying moral education as follows:
First, classroom teaching is the basic method of imparting moral knowledge and after-class activities are an important form of moral education. Labor education is an important way to carry out moral education. Emphasizing discipline and management is the basic method of moral education in foreign schools.
Second, the characteristic of moral education method is to pay attention to the development of students' cognitive ability. And they are striving to establish a moral education system to strengthen the application.
From the existing research results, the research on moral integration in English teaching started late. Although there have been a number of studies on moral education in English teaching in senior high school, there are few studies on the moral education about artistic featured students in senior high school of art.
2.3Theoretical Basis of This Study
2.3.1Theory of Moral Education
Moral education is a systematic process in which educators develop their ideological, political, legal and moral qualities through internalization and externalization, according to the needs of certain society and the educatees, observe the rules of moral character formation, and adopt effective means such as teaching by speech and example (Liu Jiliang 2010). The definition of the concept of moral education reveals the connotation of moral education in a more comprehensive way, and also describes the law that moral education should follow and the way of implementation, but it tends to generalize the concept of moral education.
Moral education is to cultivate morality, which is to realize the individual internalization of socialized ideology and morality consciously, or to promote the socialization of individual ideology and morality purposefully. The “de” here refers to individual “moral character”, which refers to the moral character of individual in a narrow sense, and “ideological character” in a broad sense, including ideological quality, political quality and moral quality (Lu Jie 2000).
Modern scholars divide moral education into broad moral education and narrow moral education. “Moral education in the broad sense is ‘great moral education', which covers political education, ideological education, law and discipline education, moral education and psychological education. Narrow sense refers to the school moral education, moral education refers to that educators put ideological, political and moral influences to the educates in accordance with requirements of the certain social or class, in a purposeful, planned and systematic way, and through the pedagogue positive knowledge, experience and practice, they can make the form required for a certain class and social moral education activities. That is, educators cultivate the moral character of the educated purposefully” (Wang Fengxian, 2000).
2.3.2Theory of Moral Education in English Subject
In English Curriculum Standards for general High School published in 2017, the educationists put forward the concept of core literacy. Core literacy is the concentrated reflection of the value of subject education. Through subject learning, students gradually form the correct value concept, essential character and key ability. It is also a kind of implicit moral education. The core literacy of English includes language ability, cultural awareness, thinking quality and learning ability. Among the four parts, cultural awareness and thinking quality are important components of moral education. The definition of cultural awareness is the comprehension of Chinese and foreign cultures and the recognition of other excellent cultures. It is the cross-cultural cognition, attitude and behavior orientation of students under the background of globalization. Cultural awareness embodies the value orientation of core literacy of English discipline.
Thinking quality refers to the logical, critical and innovative thinking ability and level. The thinking quality embodies the mental characteristics of core literacy of English.
English subject moral education integration refers to the moral education target and content in the form of integration through the teaching of English language knowledge, culture in the process of the comprehensive ability of using English language, and also is an English teacher mines and refines English teaching content of moral education value. The integrated application of various methods includes the integration of moral education teaching methods such as lectures, dialogue, discussion. Educators can use of appropriate ways of teaching language, maintain a positive emotional attitude, attach good models with good teaching behavior, create a harmonious classroom atmosphere, and cultivate good relationship between teachers and students. The content of moral education integration into classroom teaching intends to “improve students' moral cognition, exercise the students moral will and moral emotion and cultivate students' moral behavior goal” (Zhou Xuemei 2013).
Chapter Three Research Methodology
In this part, the author mainly introduces the methods used in this survey, which include questionnaire survey, interviews, and classroom observation.
The questions to be studied in this thesis are as follows:
(1)What is the current situation of moral education in English teaching of senior high school of art?
(2)What are the different needs of moral education between art students and ordinary students in senior high school of art?
(3)What factors affect the integration of moral education?
The school which is chosen as the subject in this thesis is a famous art middle school in Yantai, which is expert at the practice of the theory of moral education. It has made policies to make moral education step into classroom learning in different subjects, especially in language classes. When preparing for lessons, teachers in this school are asked to list moral education in learning objectives. What's more, moral education should be discovered from the teaching materials and be a part of the teaching procedures. So it is typical to take this school for example.
The students in this school are mainly divided into two parts. First, about 60 percent students are general students the same as the students in ordinary schools. But the grades of the students in this school are lower. Second, the rest of the students are
art students. They major in art, including drawing and music and major in sports. As for the students with artistic features, about 30 percent of their time is spent on their major at school.
There are 14 English teachers in this school besides me. Four of them have taught as English teachers for more than 30 years, and they have experienced the curriculum reform for more than once. But they may not attach importance to moral education as so-called “outman”. Six of them have rich teaching experience, but because they are from different regions, their opinions are different. Some may think language points are more important than anything else in language learning. Only four of the teachers are young, they have up-to-date teaching theories. And they are devoted to the study of the new published textbooks, which are rich in various moral education materials. And the author chooses five of the teachers to carry out the interview, whose information is as follows.
Table 3.1 The Information of Interviewed School Teachers
Number Name Years of Teaching Position
1 Mrs. Wu 20 English Teacher of Grade 1
2 Mrs. Huang 6 English Teacher of Grade 1
3 Mr. He 29 English Teacher of Grade 3
4 Mrs. He 9 English Teacher of Grade 2
5 Mr. Qu 30 English Teacher of Grade 2
The author makes a questionnaire to investigate the current integration of moral education in English classes and the students' views on the integration of moral education in English learning.
This questionnaire survey will select 80 art students and 80 ordinary students in senior one of senior high school of art. The two groups of the selected 160 English learners are different in features. Art students have received aesthetic education, so they are more creative and innovative. The ordinary students need more moral 17
elements in their classes so that they can taste the beauty of art, the beauty of life and so on. Additionally, the author will have an interview with 14 English teachers to learn about their views on the integration of moral education in English teaching. And the author also wants to learn about their ideas of moral education integration and their ways used to integrate moral education in their classes. English teachers play a very important role in the implementation of moral education, so do their views and their methods.
This research needs questionnaires to make a survey among the English learners in the chosen senior high school of art. And the students are divided into two parts, one part includes art students and the other part includes the students without any artistic features, and all the students are from senior one. As for the questionnaire for the students, it is made up of four main parts: the interest in learning English, the expectation in English learning, the recognition to the moral contents of the subject of English and English learning materials, the recognition to the function of the school and the ways and methods of practicing moral education. The design of the questionnaire is based on the questionnaire of Zhou Xuemei (2013). All the questionnaires are anonymous.
Table 3.2 Dimensions of Students' Questionnaires
School moral education 1. What do you think is the main function of the school?
2. What is the common way of moral education in your school?
3. What is your attitude towards school moral education?
4. What is your attitude towards some English-related extracurricular activities organized by your school?
Teachers' moral education 5. Which of the following subjects will teachers integrate moral education?
6. In English teaching, do teachers often link English teaching with real life?
7. In English classroom teaching, do teachers consciously integrate you with moral education?
Attitude towards moral education 8. What do you think is the content of moral education?
9.Which of the following moral education pathways has had the greatest impact on you?
10. What do you think of English as a subject?
11. Do you think there is moral education content in English textbooks?
12. In addition to vocabulary and grammar, what knowledge and skills would you like to acquire for this course in English?
13. What is your attitude towards designing some open-ended questions in English reading teaching?
14. What is your interest in western festivals, customs, literature, etc.?
15. “Integrating moral education in various disciplines”, what is your attitude towards this?
English teachers' views on the moral education are very important. And they are
the main body of the implementation of the policy of school moral education. So the
author needs to know the thoughts of the English teachers. As for the questionnaire for the teachers, it is divided into five main parts: English teachers' understanding of moral education in middle schools, English teachers' understanding of the approaches, the ways and the effect of the school moral education, English teachers' awareness of the moral education in English subject, English teachers' awareness of the subject of English and the task of English teaching, English teachers' awareness of moral education in English teaching and the real implementation of moral education.
Table 3.3 Dimensions of Teachers' Questionnaires
School moral education 1. How do you think your school attaches importance to moral education?
2. What is the common way of moral education work in your school?
3. What do you think is the effectiveness of the current school moral education work?
condition 4. What do you think is the overall moral status of the current students?
Attitude towards moral education Thoughts of moral education 5. Do you often study theories related to education and teaching?
6. Which of the following do you think belongs to the content of moral education?
7. How much do you know about moral education integration in subject teaching?
8. Do you think there is a moral education function in English teaching?
9. What is your understanding of the English curriculum philosophy and teaching tasks?
10. What is your attitude towards the integration of moral education in English classroom teaching?
Ways to integrate moral education 11. In your opinion, what are the ways to integrate moral education in English teaching?
12. In the process of preparing for lessons, did you design some questions that are conducive to stimulating students' moral emotions?
13. In your vocabulary teaching, do you consciously choose examples that reflect foreign culture and moral sentiment?
14. Do you often associate English teaching with real life in English teaching?
15. If “integrating moral education in various disciplines” is to be realized, what do you think are the main problems that need to be solved at present?
Interview is a direct way to learn about the views of interviewees and the interaction between the two aspects are more convenient because of the face-to-face. The interview outline is based on the results of the questionnaire survey, with the teachers of ordinary students, the teachers of art students and the teachers of both the ordinary students and the art students. After carrying out the survey and getting the result, the author needs answers of further understanding of the concept and policy and implementation and the necessity of moral education in English classes.
In order to improve the feasibility, the interview outline is carried out in a
semi-structured form. In order to keep consistent with the contents of the
questionnaire, the interview outline is also carried out around the situation and the
awareness of moral education in English class. The main question for the interview of
school teachers is to see from their perspective the advantages and disadvantages of moral education in English classes and the advantages and disadvantages of school English teaching. The main questions of the interview focus on how English teachers implement moral education in English classes, what are the advantages and disadvantages of the approaches they use in carrying out moral education from their perspective, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of after class activities held by the school to establish moral education.
The author also has an interview with students. The main questions are about their thoughts and effectiveness of moral education in English classes.
Classroom observation is a good way for the researcher to know directly about the ways of the implication of moral education. The researcher can know the detailed ways in person. From the data of the questionnaires and interviews of the research, the author knows that there are many problems in the carrying out of moral education in English teaching. So the author steps into some teachers' class to observe their lessons and makes some analysis to their teaching procedures. Accordingly, the author also makes some suggestions for different teachers' teaching targets, that is to say for the different kinds of students: the ordinary students and the students with artistic features, and then makes some teaching suggestions for the whole English teaching.
3.4.1Distribution of Questionnaires
It's known that the object of the survey scope is clear, so, the author chooses a senior high school in Yantai with different features of students with and without artistic features as the object of the questionnaire. The author conducted a sample survey on them from the end of December 2021 to the beginning of January 2022.
The overall sample size this time is large, which nearly covers all the students who choose to learn English in senior one, so the questionnaire can better reflect the overall situation. The implementation process of the questionnaire survey is as follows: the questionnaires were handing out on the spot after the ordinary students have chosen their favorable subjects to get better grades in college entrance examination after four times of examination. Even some students changed from ordinary students to students who are learning drawing. The key point which is well worth being explained is that all the questionnaires are conducted in an anonymous form, and the author will keep the results secrets. So all the filling results will not be let out and they won't have any negative impact on the tested students. What all the students need to do is to answer the questions truthfully, and answer the unclear questions timely in the filling process. The whole answering process takes about 15 minutes and the questionnaire is recalled immediately after completion.
In this survey, 238 questionnaires were issued to students, and 238 questionnaires were recovered, while 14 questionnaires were issued to teachers, and 14 questionnaires were recovered. The results of the survey are presented mainly in charts, and the results are analyzed by quantitative analysis, and the problems in the integration of moral education in English subject are analyzed by qualitative analysis.
3.4.2Implementation of Interview
The function of the interview is similar to that of the questionnaire. As the teachers are from different ages and different places, they are educated by different education level. The survey result may be affected. So the author made some announcement and requirements before the interview. The interviewees are from different grades and they all need to experience the first grade and the teachers all have the experience of teaching English class of ordinary students and students with artistic features. So the result of the interview can be guaranteed and is valid.
Observation is a direct way for the author to know how a teacher carries out his or her classes and it's much easier to know whether there is moral education in each link of the class or not. In order to get correct comment on the implementation of moral education in English teaching, the author has observed one teacher's lessons in different classes for six weeks to make the result of the classroom observation valid.
3.5Data Collection and Analysis
Questionnaire is one of the main forms of data collection. The author looks up questionnaires in the core journals, and carefully studies English Curriculum Criteria for Regular High Schools (2017). With the assistance of the supervisor, the questionnaire is compiled based on the actual level of students in Grade One and the suggestions of colleague teachers.
After all these preparations, the author first conducted a pilot study so that the author could test the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. Then, the author randomly selected a class of students as the subjects of a questionnaire. Before the students filled in the questionnaire, the author made instructions and explanations to ensure that the personal information of the subjects is guaranteed and not leaked, so as to reduce the psychological burden of students and they can truly answer the questions from the bottom of their heart. Under the supervision of the teacher, the students completed the questionnaire.
Then with the help of the instructor, the researcher distributed the questionnaires to the sample students and asked them to finish the questionnaire during the break time.
Interview is the second part. Firstly, the author made preparations of the questions asked in the interview. According to the research questions and the experience as an English teacher for nearly ten years, the author completed the design of interview outline. Secondly, the author selected 3 general students and 3 art students for interviews. The interview was also conducted among 5 teachers of different teaching age and different educational regions. The interviewer was gentle and the environment was comfortable without others and the interviewee could express their feelings without limitations.
The author uses an app called “Sojump” to collect the data. And the analysis of the data can also be finished through the function of this app. The detailed analysis of data results will be shown in Chapter Four.
Chapter Four Research Results and Discussion
Based on the results of questionnaires and interviews the author has conducted, this chapter mainly analyzes the current situation the integration of moral education, analyzes the awareness of the moral education of teachers and students, and analyzes the reason why moral education has been implemented very well in schools.
4.1Current Situation of Moral Education in Art Schools and Learning Needs of Different Groups of Students
4.1.1Current Situation of Moral Education in Senior High School of Art
In the era of pluralistic social life, moral education in the country is facing some difficulties, such as the lag of traditional morality and the conflict of social modernization.
In the new period, it is of great practical importance to explore the effective ways of implementing moral education. There should be correct values guiding moral education. While implementing moral education, teachers should be clearly aware that moral education is not an education for sage, and it should go for public purposes. Moral education ought to be based on fairness, and be people-oriented, and affirm the rationality of egoism. Teachers should make sure that moral education is effective and set up a moral education system which is of Chinese characteristics in order to provide strong spiritual impetus for China's economic and social construction (Ying Luo 2018).
According to the requirements of curriculum reform and new curriculum standards and in the new textbooks, there is a different thematic context in each unit. The teachers will design the moral education goal in their teaching aims and will talk about the thematic context according to the textbook and there is no sublimation of the theme and emotion. The moral education goals maybe just stay on the surface. It is not suitable for the students to talk about and maybe have nothing to do with their daily life. Teachers may ignore the true feeling of the students. It's more ideal than fit for the students' daily life.
In the exam-oriented English teaching system, the goal of moral education is too idealistic. The methods of moral education should be various, but inculcation is a single method of implementing moral education in senior high school in China, which can lead to high school students' cognitive rigidity and confinement.
In the English class in senior high school, most teachers pay more attention to the delivery of language knowledge by the teacher, but they are lack of respect and protection of the students' dominant status. More seriously, this will cause students' resistance and antipathy to moral education. Whether students can form spontaneous and internalized moral cognition and judgment system is the essential part to realize the purpose of moral education in high school. When the students can voluntarily, independently and consciously make moral choices and perform moral behavior after rational thought, the real moral education must have been integrated into the students' heart and soul. Only in this way can the students improve their taste and accomplishment and learn to live and develop in harmony with themselves, others and society.
What's worse, the system for evaluating moral education is not comprehensive. In this system of evaluating moral education, it puts more emphasis on quantitative assessment instead of quality and method. This causes the moral education evaluation to become a mere formality. This not only dampens teachers' enthusiasm and creativity of moral education, but also affects students' judgment and grasp of moral education. What is more serious is the tension and alienation of the teacher-student relationship.
Current situation of moral education in schools can actually reflect the true condition of the implementation of moral education. In order to know more about the current situation of the implementation of moral education, the author designed the questionnaire with a question to ask the students to choose at least one subject which the teachers have moral education steps in the class.
And it can be seen from the illustration that different teachers apply moral education in different levels. First of all, the subject of politics has the most amount of moral education in the class, and it counts for 95.38 percent. Chinese is listed in the second place, counting for 92.31 percent and English is listed in the third place, counting for 81.54 percent. The last three are the subject of music, physical education and art, separately counting for 50.77, 52.31 and 49.23 percent. The others are at a medium level around 70 percent. So, a conclusion can be drawn that moral education has stepped into classes but most subjects are lack of moral education. In fact, the author thinks that although different subject may have different levels of the implementation of moral education, the subject of music, art, and physical education should also have a high level of moral education, especially in senior high school of art. Sometimes, under the heavy burden of study, students are in great need of some moral lessons, at this time, the subject of music, physical education and art can play an important role.
The author also sets questions for the teachers to show the current situation of moral education in schools. First, the author sets a question to know about “What is the overall moral status of the current students in teachers' eyes”. With the rapid development of economy and society, more and more people are ignoring the moral education in everyone's daily education. The moral social condition is becoming worse and worse. Asking this question, the author wants the teachers to further know the necessity of moral education and realize the task of a teacher in the improvement of students' moral status. As a result, teachers can take on the responsibility of improving the social moral condition to make us human live in a more harmonious society.
As it can be seen from the chart, only 53.85 percent teachers think most of the students' moral consciousness and moral behavior are good. They not only pay attention to cultural knowledge learning, but also pay attention to their own moral quality improvement. But the teachers who think the students are lack of good moral quality count for 38.46 percent plus 30.77 percent. And the total amount is larger than that of those who think the students have good quality. The figures can reflect that the moral education of the students is in bad condition. Under the heavy pressure of exams, the students are busy learning knowledge in the textbooks. Although the level of the students' knowledge has been improved, the moral quality of the students is average. In conclusion, the students are in urgent need of moral education.
■ preaching and indoctrination ■ organize extracurricular activities
infiltration of moral education in the teaching of various disciplines ■ other
Chart 4.3 Teachers‘ Ways of Moral Education
After talking about the current situation of moral education from the teachers and the students' point of view, the author also investigates the current ways of implementing moral education, and the given ways are as follows. One is mechanical expounding. The second is the organization of after-class activities, and the third is the integration in the teaching of various subjects.
After getting back the questionnaires, a conclusion can be drawn from the following chart that around 84.62 percent teachers think moral education should be integrated in various subjects with the teachers during class time. And 30.77 percent teachers think the school has organized many after-class activities to cultivate the
students with moral education. And 23.08 percent teachers think the teachers can implement the moral education through expounding during class time though their expounding is mechanical. And 23.08 percent teachers which equals to the former one think there may be other ways which can be better for the school or the teachers to implement the moral education, so that the teachers can achieve the final goal to cultivate new talents with all-round development.
From the conclusion, it can be seen that the integration of moral education in various subject during class time is a main way to implement moral education, but it is far from enough. There is no assess system in the class to evaluate the application of the ways of moral education. Though through the questionnaires the author may get a positive answer of the implementation of moral education, the figures can only show that moral education does exist in class, and it may be a part of the teaching procedure. But it cannot show the effectiveness of the implementation of moral education in school. Nobody knows whether the ways of implementing moral education in this class is useful and effective or not.
preaching and indoctrination ■ organize extracurricular activities infiltration of moral education in the teaching of various disciplines ■ other
Chart 4.4 Ways of Moral Education in Students' Eyes
The same question of ways of implementing moral education in school is also designed to get the students' answer. The result is different to some extent. The result is the same in the aspect of integration moral education in various subjects, so it can be definitely said that the teachers do use this way to cultivate the students' moral recognition. But 59.7 percent students think that mechanical expounding of moral education is more than after-class activities organized by the school. To some extent, teachers' words are more powerful than the use of teaching material or the teaching design. So it can be inferred that the way in which the teachers use to implement moral education may be problematical. The ways may be separated from the teaching materials.
From the figures, it's known that the views of the teachers and the students are different. When the teachers think they are teaching moral elements through the teaching material, the students may think the words of the teachers are boring. They don't connect these words with the learning materials, so they think the words are mechanical expounding. As a result, the students are not interested in the moral education part of the class.
According to this conclusion, the effectiveness of the implementation of the moral education is important, but it can't be guaranteed. So the author has designed another question to get to know the effect of the implementation of moral education in school. The question is as follows: How do you think the effectiveness of the current school moral education work? After analyzing the collected data, 53.85 percent teachers think the implementation of moral education is practical to the students, so the result is effective. 15.38 percent students think sometimes the teachers are too busy to pay more attention to moral education, so the result is not that effective. And 38.46 percent teachers think that moral education in school is a mere formality, which has poor effect.
From all the data above, the author infers that the current situation of moral education does exist in the mind of the teachers and students and the school has also founded system to implement moral education. But the effectiveness is far from
■it is in line with the actual situation of students and the effect is obvious
■sometimes the work is too busy to take care of, and the effect is average flow in form, low effect
Chart 4.5 Effectiveness of Moral Education
From the above data showed in this thesis, the author can draw a conclusion that at current times, the idea of moral education is familiar to most schools and teachers. The schools may have some policies to carry out moral education and there must be some evaluation system. So moral education has gone into classroom and has become a part and a step of delivering classes. But seeing from the current situation, though the school has taken various measures to guarantee the implementation of moral education, the effectiveness is not as good as the school has expected. Therefore, the evaluation of the approaches of implementation of moral education and the effectiveness is in urgent need.
4.2Learning Needs of Different Groups of Students
At present, because of the stress on the moral education development, some
realistic problems have begun to come out. With the features of super-utilitarian and
affective characteristics, aesthetic education has a new perspective and provides new
ideas for changing the status of moral education through its effective integration of moral education, which shows its distinguished value. It must be mentioned that there is not only a difference but also a connection between aesthetic education and moral education. In the process of integration, it is not easy to put the two together. In the process of moral education, teachers should effectively absorb the connotation of aesthetic education, internalize it into moral spirit, and promote it step by step so as to achieve the goal of moral beauty and life beauty (Jun Tao and Quan Wen 2018).
As is known to all that the students are different in many aspects such as their language foundation, their learning surroundings. For the same learning subject, different students may want to get different points. So, the question is designed like this for the students: In addition to vocabulary and grammar, what knowledge and skills do you want to acquire in English learning? Before the research, the author has predicted that art students may want to cultivate their English learning interest and have a right attitude toward English learning, and they may also want to practice their oral English so that they can communicate with the foreigners fluently. Because art students may experience more activities which are made up of parts of foreign factors. And the ordinary students may want to learn more about the customs and culture of foreign countries which are beneficial for their reading and writing in both Chinese and English.
And after carrying out the survey, the answer is the same as the prediction. Art students have different learning objectives from the ordinary students. In addition to vocabulary and grammar, they are more interested in some learning skills and ability of using the language, so there are 80.88 percent students chose to correct their learning interest and attitude toward English learning, and they also want to practice their oral and the ability of expressing English. They want to have fluent communication with foreigners. And the two data is separately 85.29 percent and 67.65 percent. But the ordinary students care more about the knowledge of English language itself, such as customs and foreign culture.
Chart 4.6 Students' Learning Needs of English Learning
The author designed a question to ask students about their interest in Western festivals, customs, literature, etc. The intention of the design of this question is that while learning English, there are many passages which are related to western customs and culture. Maybe it's a way to draw the students' attention to English learning. But the result is surprising. Only 57.35 percent students say that they are favorable for the western customs and culture. But they also say that they are too busy with the schoolwork to spare some time to learn about them. And there are 47.06 percent students say that vocabulary and grammar are much more important than the surface learning of western custom and culture. Even 5.88 percent students say they are not a bit interested in it in a direct way.
From this data, it's known that nearly all the students are busy with the language learning of English, such as vocabulary and grammar and finishing homework of endless practice.
As for the reason for the result, it is the students' burden in their study for college entrance examination. Though some students are interested in culture aspect of English, there is not enough time for them to further learn this kind of knowledge let alone appreciate the hidden beauty and moral education in the passage. The exam-oriented study pattern is misleading the teachers and the students thought. They lack the advanced view of moral education and sometimes they are learning inflexible. In fact, sometimes the students just need to deeply explore the content of their learning materials, and they may give the students unexpected effects.
From the data of the questionnaires and interviews of the research, it's known that there are many problems in the carrying out of moral education in English teaching. So the author stepped into some teachers' class to observe their lessons and make some analysis to their teaching procedures. Accordingly, the author also makes some suggestions for different teachers' teaching targets, that is to say for the different kinds of students: ordinary students and students with artistic features. And then make some teaching suggestions for the whole English teaching.
Table 4.1 Class Observation Case: On the Road
Links Time Moral Content Moral
Ways Students' Learning Outcome
Lead-in 7 mins Explore the meaning of the sentence “Travel broadens our minds.” Use pictures and videos to let the students feel the benefits of travel. Students are just interested in the pictures and can not come up with ideas about human and nature.
Prediction 3 mins Guess what is going to talk about through the pictures on the textbook. None. Some are interested in the person on the book.
While-reading 10 mins Get the main idea of the passage and each part. None. Students can easily get the correct answer with reading skills
Post-reading 20 mins (1) Which quality can you learn from the blogger, and which one is useful in your study?
(2) Show some pictures and let the students talk about the benefits of travelling according to the blogger's travel experience. (1)Get some good qualities from the blogger to apply to students' study life.
(2)Know to protect the environment while traveling. Only one third of the students can get involved in the discussion actively and the others use this time to remember the sentence structures.
Reflections The setting of English curriculum content reflects the
importance of thematic context all over the content, which not only regulates the learning scope of language and cultural knowledge, but also permeates emotions, attitudes, and values. In this class, different teaching sessions are designed with the theme of travel and environmental protection.
Problems and suggestions The ways of moral education can be various so that it can attract more students' attention.
In this teaching design, the teacher pays more attention to the language knowledge and the thinking quality. And there are many moral education parts in this class. Students can get the good qualities from the blogger and turn the qualities they learn from the blogger into themselves. The thematic context of the lesson is human and nature, so while the students are reading the context, they can get the information that human should live in harmony with the nature and try their best to protect the environment.
But the author doesn't think this teaching design can be applied to both the ordinary students and those with artistic features. And the learning objectives are not divided properly. As for different levels of students, teachers need to divide the learning objectives into three parts: part one is the basic goals, part two is the extended goals and the last part is the challenging goal. For part one, all the students should achieve this level of learning objectives for it is the language knowledge and the most basic ones. For the second part, at least 70 percent students can achieve it. And for the highest part of the objectives, maybe there are only 20 to 30 percent students can achieve it. It is a bit difficult.
Table 4.2 Class Observation Case: Family matters
Links Time Moral Content Moral
Ways Students' Learning Outcome
Lead-in 7 mins Explore the meaning of the title “Like Father, Like Son” Use a short video to get the students explore the relationship between family members. Students are interested in the topic and pay more attention to the video.
Prediction 3 mins Guess what is going to talk about through the title. None. Most students can not get the answer from the title but can get it from the pictures on the textbook.
While-reading 10 mins Grasp the structure of the play. None. Students can easily get the correct answer with reading skills
Post-reading 20 mins Show a survey made by the teacher among themselves, which shows conflicts do exist in their daily life. Discuss one of the questions in groups and act it out. Use the method of role play to develop students' gratitude and love towards their family members and find out the effective solutions to conflict. More than half of the students can get involved in the discussion actively and they can know that should get along well with their parents and thank them from the bottom of their heart.
Reflections This lesson activities are always created on the basis of care about family, love among your family on this theme, which fully
embodies the teachers' moral consciousness. Facing all the students, the implementation of the cultivation of healthy personality, course design of specific goals in the process of class operation, not only cultivates the students' ability of autonomous learning and cooperative learning, and arouse the enthusiasm of the students to learn effectively.
Problems and suggestions Role play is a good way for moral education but the number of the students taking part in the activity is limited.
In this teaching design, it has explored all-round aspects of the text, such as the types of the passage, the structure of the passage and the relationship between the characters. But this teaching design attach more importance to the analysis of the structure, and the students' activity is not so interesting. The author thinks the teacher should think more about using the passage structure to attract the students' attention and interest. So the author has suggestions for the art students, especially for the artistic students of music. They are more familiar with the type of play than the teachers.
Table 4.3 Class Observation Case: Breaking Boundaries
Links Time Moral Content Moral
Ways Students' Learning Outcome
Lead-in 7 mins Watch a video and answer two questions:
When was MSF founded and what does it do? How about the spirit? Explore spirit of MSF through a short video. Students are interested in the topic and pay more attention to the video.
Prediction 3 mins Predict what would be involved in the passage. None. Most students can get the answer from the title.
While-reading 10 mins Grasp the structure of the play. None. Students can easily get the correct answer with reading skills
Post-reading 20 mins Use some adjectives to describe the author as well as the members in MSF. After learning the good quality and spirit of MSF, students can have a better understanding of the relationship between people and society, and understand the importance of breaking boundaries. More than half of the students can get involved in the discussion actively and they can know that they should take their responsibility to make contributions to the society.
Reflections In the teaching process of thematic context, students' language
learning effectiveness is closely related to whether students can acquire the basic language knowledge related to the theme, the quality of thinking, and the learning ability of understanding and solving the problems of the thematic context. In this learning of this class, the teachers should especially pay attention to the creation of thematic context, stimulate students interest to break the boundary of doctors without borders , using a variety of forms to guide the students to understand the text content of in a simple way. And step by step, the students can really understand the spirit of selfless dedication to the theme of this unit.
Problems and suggestions The expressions on this topic are not as vivid and interesting as drama novels. They are somewhat specialized and relatively boring, which is difficult for students. In future teaching, more attention should be paid to the reading and accumulation of articles of different genres.
In this teaching design, it can be seen that the teacher has added some moral education elements through letting the students summarize the quality of the doctors in MSF. It is a good phenomenon, but it also shows that the moral education only stays on the surface. After summarizing the quality of the doctors in MSF, there isn't any activity for the students to attach the good quality to themselves. They may not learn from the doctors and as a result, they skip the key point.
4.3Affecting Factors of the Current Situation of Moral Education
As for the different affecting factors of the current situation of the integration of moral education, the most important factor is the moral education policy of the school. If there are complete moral education systems, moral education policy can be applied and the implementation can be guaranteed. Second, the awareness of moral education of the teachers and the students are also of great importance.
So the author sets questions to make a survey about the moral education policy of the school in teachers' eyes.
■truly put moral education in the first place in school work
■moral education is just as important as intellectual education
due to the pressure of further education, more attention is paid to intellectuNl education
Chart 4.8 School's Policy on Moral Education
The author asks that how important do you think your school attaches to moral education. And from the chart above a conclusion can be drawn that more than half of the teachers counting for around 61.54 percent teachers think that the school truly put moral education in the first place in school work. Around 30.77 percent teachers think that moral education is just as important as intellectual education and around 23.08 percent teachers thinks that due to the pressure of further education, more attention is paid to intellectual education.
From the figures it can be known that, moral education in the school level is being put into the system of the school teaching system. But the pressure of further education is heavy, sometimes in order to get higher grades in intellectual education, the school may ignore the importance of moral education.
Teachers and students are the main body of the implementation of moral
education, so their awareness of the integration of moral education plays a very important role in the implementation procedure. In order to know the teachers and students' thoughts, the author designed questions related to the point in the questionnaire.
The questions are as follows: questions for the teachers: How much do you know about the integration of moral education in subject teaching? What is your attitude towards moral education in English classroom teaching? According to the two questions, there are two charts. From the first chart, it's seen that nobody say that they are blind to moral education in subject teaching. That is not to say everyone has the awareness of moral education. And only 30.77 percent teachers say they are very familiar with the moral education in subject teaching. Besides, 23.08 percent teachers think that they have heard of moral education in subject teaching, but they don't know much about it. The rest of the participant teachers say they know the moral education.
■very knowledgeable ■ understand
Chart 4.9 Understanding of Moral Education Policy
When it comes to the attitude towards moral education in English classroom teaching, 76.92 percent teachers think it is necessary to cultivate the students with
鲁东大学硕士学位论文 moral education and English teaching and moral education should go hand in hand. But there are always people with different points of view. 30.77 percent teachers think that English classroom teaching mainly teaches the basic knowledge and skills of language learning, and has nothing to do with moral education. In short, there are still many teachers do not attach importance to moral education in English classroom teaching.
Chart 4.10 Relationship between English Teaching and Moral Education
As for the questions designed for the students, the author needs to know the students' attitude towards school moral education. From the result, 82.09 percent students think the school moral education suits students' reality and they benefit a lot from it. 34.33 percent students say that some approaches are acceptable and they can benefit from them. There are still 7.46 percent students say they think the school moral education is a mere formality, so they are averse to it. From the data, it can be inferred that the students' moral awareness is not strong.
Chart 4.11 Students' Attitude towards Moral Education
As it can be seen from the above charts and discussions, it's known that there are many ways of implementing moral education in schools, such as class meeting, talking with headteachers, talking to individual student, integrating in various learning subject, in politics class, after-class activities held by the teachers or the schools, grand event for students' education and some social practice activities.
The author intends to know which moral education approach has a greater impact on the students. After investigating among the students, a series of data has been gotten. From the following chart, it's known that the students who think social practice activities have a greater impact on them counts for 83.82 percent, which is the highest among all the approaches. The approach which is listed the second is the integration in various learning subjects, which counts for 75 percent. So to some extent from the data, it can be known that during class time, the teachers have delivered some moral education knowledge, and it does have some effect on the students.
After knowing this situation, the author designs another question in the questionnaire for the students. That is in English classroom teaching, do teachers consciously carry out moral education to you? The answer is obvious. The percentage of teachers who consciously carry out moral education to the students in the class counts for 64.71 percent which is far more than the percentage of those teachers who carry out moral education to the students occasionally.
Chart 4.13 Amounts of Teachers' Implementation of Moral Education
Certainly, the English teachers have implemented moral education in different degree. But in order to know their intention of carry out the moral part, there is another question for the teachers like this: What is your attitude towards moral education in English classroom teaching? The author wants to know if they do think that moral education in English class is as important as the language points. The author sets three choices for the teacher to choose, one is English classroom teaching mainly teaches the basic knowledge and skills of language learning, and it has nothing to do with moral education, the second is that it is necessary to properly integrate moral education for the students to learn in classroom teaching. And the last choice is English teaching and moral education can happen in the same class and at the same time.
Chart 4.14 Relationship between English Teaching and Moral Education in
From the chart, it can be seen that 76.92 percent teachers chose the first choice that means they think it necessary for the teachers to deliver moral education to the students properly. And 76.92 percent teachers think that English language teaching should go hand in hand with moral education. The two data is of the same degree. There are still 30.77 percent teachers chose the second choice which means that they think English teachers' main task is to deliver English language points and some learning skills related to English learning. And English class has nothing to do with moral education.
From this data, it's clearly known half teachers think that moral education is not necessary in English class. Though many teachers have carried out moral education in class, what they have done may not done from the bottom of their heart. That means moral education is just a formality in their class and they may be forced to carry out moral education steps from the school policy and evaluation.
In the subject school, there are 17 English teachers and 6 Japanese teachers. And their idea of moral education is very important in foreign language teaching. Most teachers know the policy of applying moral education to language teaching class, but they mostly think that the context of the unit or the exercise passage in learning materials is showing moral education, so there is no extension and they think it's no use talking about too much with the students especially art students in senior high school of art because of their weak English knowledge.
But few young teachers have different opinions. They think it's useful and interesting to let the students have a brain storming to talk about the theme or the topic of the context. It's good for the students to express themselves freely. So, they may make the procedure of moral education more lively and closely connected with their daily life.
The ordinary students think that the knowledge points on the textbook are more important than others. In English class, when teachers ask them about moral education questions, they may think it as a way of making the class lively and get them more involved in the class. They won't explore more about the moral knowledge and then quickly focus on the language points.
Art students have received aesthetic education, so they are more creative and innovative. But they can't realize the importance behind the moral education. Most students are not interested in English learning and they may find the moral education part boring because it is not as interesting as their art courses. Their creative and innovative thought cannot be applied in the course of the class so they may give up taking active part in the class activities.
Art students in senior high school of art have received aesthetic education, so how to make them used to moral education is a problem worth considering. Combining the two kinds of opinions, it is easy to find out that teachers need to make moral education more connected with study and draw students' attention.
In the course of developing moral education brand, the school pays more attention to whether there is a moral education part in the class instead of whether it is suitable for the class content and the students' level. The school focuses more on the amount not the quality. And the evaluation system is not perfect.
From the survey in the above part, the author has drawn a conclusion that moral education has stepped into different subject but the effectiveness of the implementation of moral education still needs to be improved and guaranteed. In order to realize this goal, the author needs to analyze the affecting factors of the current situation of the implementation of moral education. There are many affecting factors, and it can be known from the questionnaires, there are school's policy, students' and teachers' awareness and so on.
At the first place, the policy of the moral education of a school is very important for the implementation of moral education. The school can act as a director, a leader, a supporter in students' education in different ways. So whether the policy of moral education is proper can fully affect the effectiveness of moral education. Good policy can arise students' learning interest and make them energetic while learning knowledge. But if the moral education policy of the school is improper, it may become a kind of burden for the students, which can distract the students' attention. As a result, neither the knowledge in the textbook nor the moral education spirit can be learned.
Chapter Five Conclusion
According to the research conclusion of the fourth chapter, moral education in English teaching plays a very important role in student's language learning life. In this part, the author mainly introduces the major findings of the research, its pedagogical implications and the limitations in this thesis. The author also makes some suggestions for further studies.
This thesis aims to make a survey about the current situation of the implementation of moral education in English teaching in senior high school of art. According to the research, the school has carried out moral education policies to contribute to the all-round development of the students and the teachers nearly obey the policies to add moral education factors to the teaching procedure. The teachers and the students all have the awareness of moral education. They do know the importance and necessity of moral education added to teaching process.
But from the results of the questionnaires and interviews, it can be easily known that the implementation of moral education is limited under the pressure of the college entrance examination. Some English teachers wrongly separate English teaching from moral education. And ways of implementing moral education are almost the same in various kinds of classes. Moral education cannot be carried out with targeted methods. Different ways of implementing moral education have different effect, and the effectiveness is also different. Especially the ways of implementing moral education between the ordinary students and art students should be of difference, because the surroundings and learning backgrounds of the two kinds of students are different. First, the ordinary students have few chances to get in touch with other learning 52
materials apart from the textbooks and the learning materials offered by the teachers, so their view may be narrowed and they need more active ways to lead them to the colorful world and the beauty of the nature. Second, students have many accesses to the beauty of the world and they need to further explore the inner world of themselves and get some good qualities to improve themselves. All in all, the two kinds of students both need actual moral education to correctly deal with the relationship of human and nature, human and society and human and self.
Nowadays, the school moral education plays an important role in students teaching. It is a necessity in the rapid developing society and the new English curriculum standard published in 2017. The advantages of integrating moral education to English teaching are not investigated and is unclear.
The study of the current situation of integration of moral education and English teaching has inspired the author a lot in English teaching. Based on the researches of this thesis, the author provides several suggestions for education as follows.
At first, the school should improve the school moral education system, including a completed evaluation system. The schools should take measures to help students with building moral character. One of the ways is to use prepared moral education programs, but it is proved that the effectiveness can be restricted.
There are still other ways. First, some scholars have consulted over 50 of the world's first-class scientists who have spent years studying morality, character, or behavior change. Second, recent studies have been searched for behavior changes which have been applied to moral education at school. After the two ways of investigation, suggestions can be put forward: Schools should stress more on covert or “invisible” moral education practices and the virtues of a small number of “masters” (Meindl and Quirk and Graham 2018).
Also, the author proposes the school of public happiness experience, the moral 53
public of living together with oneself and creating public space together with others, and the meaning of public happiness in moral education at the emotional level of public participation (Ko Mi Suk 2019). And then take some actions to guarantee the carry out of moral education. The leaders with teaching duties should go into different teachers' classes, and evaluate the class with moral education goals.
After observing different classes, the leaders should make a reflection of these classes they observed, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages. As for the advantages, the other teachers can learn from them, and as for the disadvantages, the teacher who lectured the class should learn from others and improves their classes.
Additionally, the teachers should have awareness of moral education which is up to date. “Student-oriented” is the teaching idea that teachers should adhere to at present (Zhang Xiaoxiao 2021).
Moral education is the first of the “five educations”, and moral education should come in the first place in education. The realization of moral education goal depends on good emotional interaction between teachers and students in the process of applying moral education. The emotional interaction in class is a continuous state of interaction and it also has influence between the two sides in educational activities (Huang Yongneng 2019). Under the background of the new curriculum reform, senior high school English teachers should actively understand the learning situation of students, and create a good learning atmosphere for students, so as to cultivate students' comprehensive quality (Zhou Jun 2021).
Though the grade is important, cultivating the students to become a true human being is far more important than that. Because of the COVID-19, many academic activities have been cancelled. But each coin has two sides. There have been so many online meetings and classes related to moral education. Teachers should take part in this kind of activities and meetings to get the latest policies of moral education and apply them to their own teaching. And the passion of a teacher also affects the students. Teachers should set examples for the students.
Thirdly, the students are the host of each class. The awareness of moral education of the students is very important. As a student, taking an active part in the school activities of moral education is a responsibility. Students should take moral education seriously both in and after class. Especially in English class, expressing one's ideas about moral education in fluent English can improve the students spoken English as well the recognition of moral ability.
Above all, the school, the teachers and the students should cooperate well so that moral education can be applied to classes and the effectiveness can be guaranteed.
5.3Limitations and Suggestions
Firstly, the methods of this research are simple, which just include questionnaires, interviews and classroom observation. The questions in the questionnaires and interviews are relatively one-sided. As the policies of the school and the awareness of the teachers and students are changing with time, follow-up investigation method and action research can be applied in the future to further know the integration of moral education.
Secondly, the research has limited survey sample, which is only in one school. This thesis aims to explore moral education in English teaching, but the research is only done among the teachers and students from one school of medium. And in this school, there are policy support for moral education. The condition may be different in different schools. So if possible, the samples of the survey had better be widely chosen from different schools. What's more, the author just chose the students from senior one, without samples from senior two or senior three. The students of different ages and grades may have different awareness of moral education. In the future, studies can be conducted from different regions, different schools or genders to expand the sample range.
At last, the research investigated the factors influencing the implication of moral education from the perspectives of the school, the teachers and the students. But there are still many factors which can affect the implication in different aspect, such as the curriculum reform policies, the changes in teaching materials. Therefore, the researchers will explore and analyze other factors in future studies.
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