摘 要 iii
Chapter One Introduction 1
1.1Research Background 1
1.2Research Purpose and Significance 2
1.3Overall Structure of the Thesis 3
Chapter Two Literature Review 5
2.1Related Definitions of Teaching Objectives 5
2.1.1Definition of Teaching Objectives 5
2.1.2Definition of Teaching Objective Design 7
2.2Classifications of Teaching Objectives 8
2.2.1Bloom's Taxonomy of Teaching Objectives 8
2.2.2Gagne's Classification of Teaching Objectives 11
2.3Theoretical Basis of Teaching Objectives 12
2.3.1ABCD Teaching Objective Model 12
2.3.2Three-dimensional Teaching Objectives 14
2.3.3SMART Principle 15
2.4 Previous Research on Teaching Objectives 18
2.4.1Related Research on Teaching Objectives Abroad 18
2.4.2Related Research on Teaching Objectives at Home 19
Chapter Three Research Methods 24
3.1Research Questions 24
3.2Research Participants 24
3.3Research Instruments 25
3.3.4Text Analysis 28
3.4Data Collection and Analysis 28
Chapter Four Results and Discussion 31
4.1Current Situation of English Teaching Objectives' Design in Junior High School31
4.1.1Content of Teaching Objectives Based on Three-dimensional Teaching
4.1.2Description of Teaching Objectives Based on ABCD Teaching Objective
4.1.3Principles of Teaching Objectives Based on SMART Principle 37
4.2 Current Situation of English Teaching Objectives' Implementation in Junior
High School 40
4.2.1Implementation Based on Three-dimensional Teaching Objectives 40
4.2.2Behavior Subjects in Class Based on ABCD Teaching Model 43
4.3Deficiencies in the Design and Implementation of English Teaching Objectives44
4.3.1 Design of English Teaching Objectives 44
4.3.2Implementation of English Teaching Objectives 56
Chapter Five Conclusion 58
5.1 Major Findings 58
5.2Pedagogical Implications 59
5.3Limitations of the Research 62
5.4Suggestions for the Future Research 62
Appendix (One) Questionnaire 67
Appendix (Two) Interview Outline 72
About the Author 73
Chapter One Introduction
This chapter mainly introduces the research background, research purpose and significance, and finally the overall structure of the research.
In order to improve the pertinence and effectiveness of teacher training in primary schools, junior high schools, and senior high schools, the Ministry of Education promulgated The Curriculum Standard of “National Training Plan” (for Trial Implementation) in May 2012. The Curriculum Standard of “National Training Plan” (for Trial Implementation) expounds on the content of teacher training from three dimensions, namely, teachers' professional philosophy and ethics, professional knowledge, and professional ability (Ministry of education of the people's Republic of China, 2012). The Curriculum Standard for the “National Training Plan” (for Trial Implementation) places a premium on teachers' ability to design lessons as part of their professional ability training; among other things, the teaching design focuses on English teaching objectives, teaching difficulties, and teaching process.
Teaching objectives should be considered first by English teachers since they can help direct their instruction. In addition, China's Ministry of Education promulgated The English Curriculum Standards for Compulsory Education (2011 Edition) in December 2011, which jointly cultivates students' comprehensive language application ability through three aspects: knowledge and skill, process and method, emotion and value, and pays attention to the unity of instrumentality and humanism.
Therefore, when implementing classroom teaching, teachers should take the overall goal of the curriculum as the criterion and decompose the overall goal of the curriculum, so that the design of teaching goal can be reflected and implemented in each class.
It is self-evident that classroom teaching objectives have an impact on teachers' teaching practice. However, for such a thing that every teacher is used to, not many teachers can look at it from the perspective of their professional development and students' sustainable development. Especially since the new curriculum reform, the transformation of teaching methods has brought some confusion to teachers' teaching. The understanding of these problems has increased the difficulty, resulting in some degree of false phenomenon in the design and implementation of classroom teaching objectives. In addition, due to the influence of traditional teaching ideas, many English teachers still have many problems with determining and designing teaching objectives. They frequently lack a sufficient grasp of the relationship between classroom teaching objective design and classroom implementation in their teaching practice.
Non-standard teaching objectives, on the other hand, cannot successfully guide instruction or teaching assessment. In the end, students cannot be perfectly trained. Therefore, it is very necessary to study the design and implementation of classroom teaching objectives for junior high school English teachers.
1.2Research Purpose and Significance
This study takes the teaching goal design of English teachers in junior high schools in Yantai as an example to explore the current situation of teaching objectives' design dimensions and implementation in junior high school. On this basis, the deficiencies in the design and implementation of teaching objectives are found. In addition, the author puts forward some suggestions for the design and implementation of classroom teaching objectives for English teachers. Front-line teachers can think and learn how to design scientific and reasonable classroom teaching objectives, so as to optimize English classroom teaching. Teachers enhance their understanding of the objective and the method of objective formulation in order to improve classroom teaching efficiency. It can not only a vital goal of English classroom instruction, but also serve as the author's motivation for selecting this topic.
The teaching objective is the most significant factor in shaping the whole process and quality of the teaching experience. Junior high school English teachers need to consider the requirements of students' all-around development when setting teaching objectives. If the teaching objectives only include language knowledge and learning content, students will only become a rigid container of knowledge.
Starting with the basic premise, this study suggests that English training in junior high schools should be standardized and systematized. Specific and clear teaching objectives limit the direction of teaching design and ensure the stability of curriculum implementation. English teaching objectives not only play a guiding role in English teaching design, but also have certain limitations on teaching plans. Studying the current situation of the design and implementation of English teaching objectives provides a good standard for the design and implementation of teaching objectives, which is of great significance to the teaching effect.
In addition, when describing English teaching objectives, if teachers only use the verbs, such as “know” and “understand”, the expression of teaching objectives will lack scientificity, objectivity and standardization. Therefore, non-standard teaching goal design will bring bad learning results to learners. In other words, studying the current situation of the design and implementation of English teaching objectives can lay a solid foundation for students' learning.
Thirdly, this study helps to improve the quality of English teaching in junior high school. Under the guidance of The Standards for Professional Competence of Teachers Majoring in Middle School Education (Trial) and The English Curriculum Standards for Compulsory Education (2011 Edition), teachers are able to formulate specific and intuitive teaching objectives, so that the teaching quality can be improved.
1.3Overall Structure of the Thesis
This paper consists of five parts, including introduction, literature review, research methodology, results and discussion, and conclusion.
Chapter one is introduction. It consists three parts: research background, research purpose and significance, overall structure of the thesis.
Chapter two is literature review. It summarizes the definitions of teaching objectives, the classification of teaching objectives, previous research on teaching objectives, and the theoretical basis.
Chapter three is about research methods. It includes the research questions, research participants, research instruments, research procedure, and data collection and analysis.
Chapter four is results and discussion. It introduces the current situation of English teaching objectives' design and implementation in junior high school and the deficiencies in the design and implementation of English teaching objectives.
Chapter five is the conclusion, including major findings, pedagogical implications, limitations of the research, and suggestions for the future research.
Chapter Two Literature Review
This chapter briefly discusses the definition of teaching objectives, their classification, important domestic and international research, and theoretical foundations.
2.1Related Definitions of Teaching Objectives
The author primarily discusses the connotation of teaching objectives and the design of teaching objectives, with a particular emphasis on the design of middle school English teaching objectives, as the study's purpose is the teaching objectives of middle school English teachers.
2.1.1Definition of Teaching Objectives
Taylor (1934), an American educationalist, first proposed the concept of teaching objectives in the 1930s. He believed that teaching objective were the objects that people consciously pursued, that is, the purposes that school staff wanted to achieve. In addition, he believed that teaching objectives should adapt to learners, off-campus life, subject experts' advice, and the development of other subjects. At the same time, the selection and organization of the learning experience should also adapt to educational objectives. It was not until the mid-1950s and mid-1960s, however, that educators began to look more closely at educational goals based on Taylor's principle. Bloom (1956) further proposed a taxonomy of teaching objectives on this basis, arguing that teaching objectives should be more concerned with students' learning outcomes. Eisner (1967) explained that “the outcomes of education are far more numerous and complex for educational objectives to encompass”. He believed that curricula driven by predetermined outcomes prohibited the development of “curiosity, inventiveness, and insight”. However, Wang Xiaoming (2016) believed that the teaching objective in Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Goals (Revised Edition) did not stop at this expression, but made a more detailed analysis of this “expected result”, which can be described by the combination of “knowledge” and “cognitive process”. To put it another way, teaching objectives are the consequence of a mix of “knowledge” and “cognitive process.”
The study of educational aims in China has spanned more than 30 years since the introduction of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives in the 1980s. During this time, target-oriented teaching research grew rapidly, and it became an important school of teaching theory in China's history of teaching theory. Teaching objectives, according to Li Rumi (1997), are established by the themes of teaching activities, must be attained in specific teaching activities, and can be measured using available technology tools. Teaching objectives, he stressed, were detailed descriptions of students' learning outcomes and ending actions, as well as explanations of changes in students' knowledge and abilities at the conclusion of teaching activities. Teaching objectives, according to Xi Dinghua (2001), were defined as the behavioral changes that teachers desired for students as a result of their learning, as embodied in the detailed description of students' learning outcomes and ending behaviors.
Curriculum objective and teaching objective, on the other hand, have become two easily misunderstood terms in our country's curriculum theory and teaching theory research, and thus cannot serve as a guide in specific education and teaching activity. In their analysis of teaching objectives, Qiu Xirong and Liu Jiafang (2008) defined the unique goal of teaching aim. They believed that the teaching objectives linked to specific teaching linkages were the fundamental foundation for teaching guidance, implementation, and evaluation, primarily to offer a foundation for teachers' teaching and students' learning. Teaching objectives are concerned with students' actual growth, and their creation and realization should be carried out using a variety of teaching resources. Teaching objectives, according to LiuHui (2021), are a description of desired learning outcomes, but they cannot be considered the end result of learning activities. Otherwise, the growth of students' learning capability will be hampered. That is to say, in the classroom, teachers should change and be flexible in accordance with reality rather than copying educational objectives.
The author believes that most educators have a very common understanding of “what is the teaching objective.” Teaching objectives are the intended learning outcomes or standards of teachers and students following classroom instruction, which can help to improve teaching quality.
2.1.2Definition of Teaching Objective Design
In the practical study on classroom teaching objectives and the production of teaching goals, the design of classroom teaching objectives is a component. Teaching objective design is a subordinate idea of teaching design. Learning theory and teaching theory are two theoretical foundations for classroom design. Based on the characteristics of curricular requirements and teaching objects, this used a systematic analytical approach to determine the assumption and plan of a suitable teaching scheme (Yan Jin 2015). In most cases, teaching objectives, teaching content, teaching methods, learning scenario analysis, and other links are incorporated.
Teaching objective design, according to Jin Jianshe (2004), is the embodiment of contemporary curriculum ideas, new curriculum concepts, and new viewpoint teaching. Yan Yan (2010) provided a thorough explanation of how to develop teaching objectives. To assure the fulfillment of duties in the teaching process, she felt that teaching objectives should be designed based on the current state and degree of teaching objectives, as well as the real situation of students, as well as existing educational technology and educational resources. At the same time, teaching objective design should also be clear on how to determine whether to complete the task, and how to improve the process of classroom teaching objectives, so as to help teachers design appropriate teaching objectives and teaching activities.
Teaching objective design, according to Song Jia (2020), refers to the teacher's assumption about the desired results and levels of students after learning. It is a critical component of the teaching design system and serves as the foundation for the design of the instructional process and evaluation.
According to previous studies, the author thinks that teaching objective design is to determine teaching objectives and formulate reasonable, and specific teaching objectives under the guidance of specific teaching concepts, curriculum standards, textbooks, and actual learning conditions, and under the guidance of teaching objective design theory. In addition, the new curriculum reform emphasizes the combination of three-dimensional goals. Based on the concept of the new curriculum reform, the curriculum goals in the compulsory education curriculum standard include five aspects, which are mutually permeated. In English, language itself is situational, humanistic, and emotional.
To summarize, the process by which middle school English teachers present teaching objectives in teaching plans with students as the main body and in scientific, concrete, operable, and valuable expressions based on a thorough understanding of curriculum standards, textbooks, students, and educational concepts is referred to as the design of middle school English teaching objectives.
2.2Classifications of Teaching Objectives
This section focuses on teaching objective classification, including Bloom's Taxonomy of Teaching Objectives and Gagne's Classification of Teaching Objectives.
2.2.1Bloom's Taxonomy of Teaching Objectives
Many educational specialists across the world are researching and applying the idea of educational evaluation to tackle the problem of how to effectively improve the quality of teaching. Bloom (1956), a well-known American educationalist, proposed the 8
notion of “classification of educational aims”, which has had a significant impact on both theoretical research and the practical effects of education and teaching.
Bloom categorized all of the teaching objectives into three categories: cognitive domain, emotional domain, and motor skill domain. Each topic is divided into numerous levels, ranging from simple to sophisticated, and he emphasizes the need of mastering the lower level before moving on to the higher level.
Memorization, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation make up the cognitive field, which is organized from simple to complicated. The easiest level is memorization, which is followed by understanding over knowledge, making evaluation the most difficult of the six stages.
The following are the definitions for each category: memorization is the process of recalling or remembering information that must be remembered, such as rules, theories, definitions, and so on. Recall, remember, distinguish, point, renew, and find are common action verbs. The ability to transform, interpret, and deduce is referred known as comprehension ability. This advancement should be founded on the information. Summarize, forecast, rewrite, interpret, compare, and interpret are all common action verbs. Learners can apply what they've learned in the classroom to tackle real-world situations. Use, solve, implement, employ, and change are all common action verbs. By breaking down material into its constituent pieces, analysis is a technique for studying the parts and their relationships. This is where higher-order thinking starts. Analyze, identify, transform, divide, separate, outline, and classify are all common verbs. Learners recollect relevant knowledge previously stored in their minds, then mix the discrete components to develop their thinking, typically employing the action verbs organize, combine, formulate, build, and generalize.
The highest level in the cognitive field is evaluation, which means that learners must not only learn knowledge and master the other five skills, but also be able to make reasonable judgments on some ideas, products, answers, and related learning content, as described by the words select, compare, assess, estimate, and argue.
(2)The emotional realm
The field of emotion includes five categories: reception, response, evaluation, organization, and representation. Acceptance refers to the learner's awareness and willingness to receive, control, or select attention. Response refers to learners' attitude towards teaching activities, including response acquiescence, response willingness, and response satisfaction. Emphasis means that learners choose some values or principles acquired in the learning process to guide their behavior. Valuation may be classified into three types: acceptance value, preference value, and commitment value. The fourth category in the field of emotion is the organization consisting of value conceptualization and value system organization.
The last type is representation, which means that values have been gradually internalized into individual behaviors (Bloom & Krathwohl & Masia 1964). In addition, the psychomotor field includes imitation, manipulation, precision, pronunciation, and domestication (Harrow 1972).
The application of Bloom's taxonomy of teaching objectives has considerably improved the quality of instructional design, results, and assessment. Bloom's taxonomy of teaching objectives assists educators and instructors in considering teaching from the viewpoints of educational psychology and cognitive psychology, therefore providing a framework for teachers to develop teaching objectives.
Bloom's classification of teaching objectives was updated by Anderson & Krathwohl (2001) in order to better reflect the current situation. The main difference between this version of Bloom's classification of teaching objectives and the previous version is that this version uses a two-dimensional framework. Take the category of knowledge as a dimension. As part of the knowledge dimension, Anderson introduced metacognitive knowledge. The first dimension encompasses factual, conceptual, process, and metacognitive knowledge. Another dimension is the cognitive process, which includes memory, comprehension, application, analysis, evaluation, and creativity.
“Creation” is the highest level in Bloom's revised taxonomy of educational aims.
This demonstrates that teachers should not just develop students' abilities to handle old issues, but also their ability to think critically about new challenges in unexpected disciplines. Teaching objectives, teaching activities, teaching assessment, and teaching impacts may all be studied, comprehended, and developed from the standpoint of merging knowledge and cognitive process, according to the revision. It is beneficial in overcoming the drawbacks of one dimension.
2.2.2Gagne's Classification of Teaching Objectives
The learning process, according to Gagne (1985), has three stages: information input, information processing, and information output. As a consequence, he categorizes learning outcomes as follows: linguistic knowledge, intellectual capacities, cognitive strategies, physical skills, and attitudes.
Linguistic knowledge refers to the ability to express information. After learning, learners can remember the knowledge and store it in their minds, as well as recall and describe the knowledge in their way. This knowledge may be names, symbols, place names, times, definitions, etc. They not only study for the subject, but also the later life.
Intellectual capacities are the ability to use symbols to solve problems. This knowledge includes discrimination, specific concepts, rules, and advanced rules. Intellectual skills are different from verbal information, which is about “what”, whereas intellectual skills are about “how”. In short, intellectual skill is the ability to make people know how to do something. If you know a rule clearly, but you don't know how to use it, it means you lack intellectual skills. Intellectual skills are a prerequisite for learning.
Cognitive strategies are the skills learners choose to use to regulate their internal mental processes, such as how to remember, how to think, and how to solve problems. Learners can improve their learning ability by constantly adjusting their cognitive strategies, but the cultivation and improvement of cognitive strategies cannot be separated from the attention of students and teachers.
Physical skill refers to the ability to coordinate movements according to certain rules through practice. Physical skill acquisition is frequently entwined with cognitive learning since physical skills are typically composed of a series of consecutive steps and actions. When students acquire motor abilities, they must first understand the associated processes and norms. Such actions can be refined with repeated practice.
Attitude refers to learners' tendency to react to others, objects and themselves. Attitude cannot be learned through practice, but is often acquired in the learning process and plays an important role in the learning process. Therefore, in the teaching process, teachers can not ignore the education of students' attitudes.
Although Gagne's classification of learning is similar to Bloom's classification of educational objectives, Gagne pays more attention to the appropriateness of learning outcomes and teaching conditions, and the selection of teaching strategies for different teaching objectives.
2.3Theoretical Basis of Teaching Objectives
In the previous part, the theoretical and empirical studies on teaching objectives and English teaching objectives are reviewed in detail. In this part, the theoretical basis will be introduced, including the ABCD teaching objective model, three-dimensional teaching objectives, and SMART principle.
2.3.1ABCD Teaching Objective Model
Based on behavioral psychology, Mager (1997) proposed the behavioral goal theory. He argued that teachers should use observable and measurable external actions acquired by students to identify instructional goals. A good teaching aim, he argues, comprises three elements: learners' performance, performance conditions, and acceptable performance standards. Later, Armstrong and Savage developed the ABCD teaching objective model based on several teaching objective theories, and each letter in 12
the ABCD acronym plays a vital role in developing teaching objectives (Jeremy 1983).
(1)Subject of action.
A (audience) represents the subject of behavior, namely learners in the ABCD model. Teaching objectives should state student behavior, not teacher behavior. That is to say, learners should be the main body of teaching objectives, and each teaching objective should be designed according to the development of learners. The correct form of the teaching objective should be “Students can/are able to ... ”, instead of “Let the students...”.
B (behavior) is an action verb that can be used to describe specific activities that students can watch, measure, operate, and assess. Teachers must pick proper action verbs to convey how well students should do when writing teaching objectives. Teachers must pay special attention to the use of action verbs in their teaching objectives in order to do this, and the use of action verbs in teaching objectives must be observable and quantifiable.
C (condition) stands for behavioral conditions, indicating the environment and conditions for students to complete learning behaviors, such as “according to PPT...” “continue reading the article in its entirety...” and so on. There are four types of conditions: one is to allow or prohibit the use of manual and auxiliary tools, for example, “can bring a reference book, such as the Oxford Dictionary”. The second is to provide information or prompts, such as “give a picture of sewage discharge in a factory and let students guess the content of this reading lesson”. The third is the time limit, such as “within 3 minutes, can summarize the general idea of the article”. The fourth is to complete the behavior of the scene, such as “after discussing with the deskmates, can divide the structure of the article”.
(4)Degree of performance.
D (degree) represents the degree of performance, which refers to the lowest level of performance achieved by students in teaching objectives and can measure the degree of students' learning performance or learning results, overcoming the abstract and fuzzy defects of traditional presentation methods. For example, “Write at least three suggestions on environmental protection” and “get two-thirds of the questions right”.
2.3.2Three-dimensional Teaching Objectives
The Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China (MOE) established three-dimensional teaching objectives in 2001, based on Bloom's taxonomy of teaching objectives and Gagne's five learning outcomes. Three-dimensional teaching is the most visible and major innovation in the new curriculum reform, which aims to enhance learners' individual development. Knowledge and skill, process and method, emotion and value are the three dimensions of three-dimensional teaching objectives. Three-dimensional teaching objectives, according to Yang Jiujun (2008), have unity and internal consistency, as well as being united and indivisible. Yan Yan (2010) had a similar point of view. Three-dimensional objectives, she says, are three facets of teaching objectives rather than three separate teaching objectives.
The first is knowledge and skill. Three-dimensional teaching objectives are built on the foundation of knowledge and skill. Knowledge mostly refers to fundamental subject understanding and knowledge of human existence. The skill to invent, practice, collect, and utilize information, among other things, is referred to as an ability.
Yan Jin (2015) mentioned that the design of English teaching objectives should be based on the Analysis of The English Curriculum Standards for Compulsory Education (2011 Edition), textbook content, and students' needs. First of all, we should analyze The English Curriculum Standards for Compulsory Education (2011 Edition) and the contents of the teaching materials, from which we can understand the knowledge points to be taught, which is the main basis for designing knowledge objectives. In addition, students' existing levels and learning requirements are examined in order to pick instruction from their perspective. In brief, the establishment of students' knowledge structure should be considered while designing instructional knowledge points. Structured information not only helps students remember things, but also makes it easier for them to learn new things and grasp what they already know.
Process and method is the second dimension. In the reform process, process and method are critical innovation connectors. In the context of learning, process refers to the process of students' experience, inspiration, and exploration, as well as the responsive learning environment and communication experience. The term “method” refers to the study methods of individual study, cooperative study, and inquiry study, as well as the study approach and living style. Process and method, according to Li Runzhou (2014), is representations of methodological knowledge in terms of the nature of knowledge. Philosophical methodology, general scientific methodology, and particular scientific methodology are all examples of methodological knowledge, which focuses on the subject of “how to know.”
The third dimension is emotion and value. Emotional attitude not only reflects the learner's learning attitudes, but also reflects the learner's attitude towards society and nature. The new curriculum reform requires learners to develop interests in learning, a sense of responsibility, optimism, and a tolerant attitude in daily life. Value stresses not just individual worth, but also societal worth. Wang Cesan (2015) believed that emotional attitudes and values are invisible psychological non-intellectual (irrational) factors, so they are difficult to represent, quantify and control. Therefore, the way of learning or acquiring emotional attitudes and values is often imperceptible, attached to knowledge teaching, situation, personality, etc.
The SMART principle is proposed by the American management scientist Peter F. Drucker (2006) as a management principle in the Practice of Management. But over time, the principle came to be known as the principle for designing teaching objectives.
SMART principles are specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and timed.
The concreteness principle. specific teaching objectives can clearly express learners' standards of learning behavior, and also let learners know what they should do and how to do it. Teachers should design specific teaching objectives according to the requirements of curriculum standards, the content of textbooks and students' cognitive structure, ability level, interests, habits, and so on.
Principle of measurability. Teaching objectives define the intended learning outcomes at the conclusion of a class and serve as a direction for students' learning. At the end of the class, learning outcomes should be known, so teaching objectives should be measurable. In order to measure the effect of learning, teachers can use some strategies to design measurable teaching goals, such as using measurable verbs to describe the teaching objectives.
The realizability principle. Students' learning behavior is influenced by the teaching objectives. If the teaching objective is set excessively high, students may likely lose motivation if they do not meet it. On the other hand, instructional objectives might be set excessively low. The design of educational objectives should take the learners' growth into account, and teachers should guarantee that students of varying abilities can accomplish the intended outcomes with sufficient effort.
The principle of relevance. First and foremost, teaching objectives should be directly linked to English curriculum standards, textbooks, and the development of pupils. Second, because each lesson is not isolated, its teaching objectives should be interrelated. Finally, teaching objectives should take into account all aspects of many dimensions.
The principle of timing. Teaching objectives must be implemented within a specific time frame. Teachers should not only organize the teaching process and time in order to increase the efficiency of English classes, but they should also organize the time to achieve the intended teaching objectives.
This chapter reviews the literature related to teaching objectives and English teaching objectives. From the preceding literature evaluation and analysis, It can be observed that international research on teaching objectives started in the 1930s. This is despite the fact that teaching objectives have been carried out abroad for nearly 90 years with fruitful research results. Compared with the research results of foreign countries, the research on teaching objectives in China is not very sufficient, and needs further studies according to the actual situation in China.
Secondly, previous studies on teaching objectives mainly focus on the definition, connotation, classification, and design principles of teaching objectives. The research on English teaching objectives is not enough and is still in its infancy in China.
Thirdly, as the premise of effective teaching, the design of English teaching objectives has attracted more and more attention from researchers and teachers in the past decade. Some studies have investigated the problems existing in teaching objectives and put forward suggestions, but many of them are short in content, lack analysis, and lack reference. In addition, teaching and learning is an empirical issue, but most of the researches are only the theoretical explanations of the design and implementation of English teaching objectives, which are not in-depth and lack practicality. Therefore, empirical studies related to these issues are lacking.
Fourthly, the research on the design of English teaching objectives mainly focuses on problems and strategies. It can be observed from the preceding literature evaluation and analysis that international research on teaching objectives started in the 1930s.
Fifthly, in some studies, the samples are not sufficient or representative to investigate the current situation of English teaching objectives.
The constraints of previous studies can influence the direction of future research. Efforts should be made to close the following gaps:
(1)Conduct some empirical research on the design of English teaching objectives, as well as additional empirical research on more samples. Front-line teachers' teaching plans should be examined, as should surveys of instructors from various schools, and, if possible, observations of real-world classroom instruction.
(2)Analyze the link between teaching objectives and the teaching process to see if there is a disconnect between them.
(3)Conduct a comprehensive and in-depth study to explore the real causes of problems.
Therefore, this study aims to investigate the current situation of the design and implementation of junior high school English teaching objectives through more samples and analyze the deficiencies of the design and implementation of teaching objectives. Finally, the strategies for optimizing teaching objectives are put forward.
2.4Previous Research on Teaching Objectives
This section mostly summarizes research on teaching objectives in the United States and overseas. In international study, both the definition and communication of educational objectives are investigated. Work on the formulation of teaching objectives, the design of teaching objectives, and the formulation of teaching objectives for English language learners are all part of teaching objectives research in China.
2.4.1Related Research on Teaching Objectives Abroad
(1)Research on the classification of teaching objectives
In the category of teaching objectives, In the 1930s, under the background of the American economic crisis, Taylor proposed a system of educational objectives aimed at promoting evaluation. He believed that teaching objectives include content, object, and behavior description. In the 1950s, Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives opened the curtain for the systematic study of the taxonomy of educational objectives. Bloom divides educational goals into three areas: cognitive, emotional and motor skills. The major issue is that Bloom's Taxonomy is implicitly based on outdated mentalist assumptions and on the mechanistic model of human cognition as “information processing.” By contrast, Developmental Teaching and Learning (DTL) argues that knowledge is not “information” but rather a set of activities; activities cannot be “stored and retrieved” but can only be developed, enacted, and re-enacted. Thinking about the mind and students' cognitive abilities in terms of activities that are inseparable from the acting person, rather than in misleading terms of stages and levels of “objective 18
information processing,” changes the entire discourse about educational goals, learning, and teaching (Igor 2020). In the 1960s, Robert Mager believed that a complete teaching objective should include three basic elements: behavior, conditions, and standards. In specific teaching practice, people think it is necessary to add the description of the teaching object into the teaching objective. In 1983, Armstrong and Sevige proposed the ABCD teaching objective writing model. Gagne divided learning outcomes into five categories in the 1970s: intellectual abilities, cognitive methods, linguistic knowledge, physical skills, and attitudes. The five elements of writing teaching objectives include action verbs, action verbs, tools, restrictions, and special conditions, and objects. In the 1980s and 1990s, Marzano developed his classification of educational goals based on patterns of human behavior.
(2)Research on the statement of teaching objectives
The research achievements in teaching objective statements mainly come from abroad. In 1962, Mager proposed the theory and technology of behavioral goals on the basis of behaviorist psychology. Mager proposes that there are three elements in stating goals: action verbs, action conditions and action criteria. Armstrong and Sevige set up the ABCD model for teaching objectives. In 1978, Glenn proposed a combination of internal processes and explicit behaviors to express teaching objectives. Eisner (2012), an American curriculum scholar, proposed the expressive objective statement method, requiring that the activities students should participate in should be clearly defined, but it does not need to specify what students will get. The research results of teaching objectives abroad can be used for reference and guidance to the related research of teaching objectives.
2.4.2Related Research on Teaching Objectives at Home
(1)Research on the statement of teaching objectives
Li Maosen (2006) discussed the nature of effective teaching in the teaching goal orientation, the article on the nature of the teaching target and positioning problem from six dimensions has carried on the profound analysis, such as the interior and the exterior of the teaching goal, the default generated problems, etc., discusses the problems of these make the researchers of teaching goals had a deeper and more clear understanding, It also has important inspiration for teachers to design teaching objectives. Yan Yan (2010) aimed at the phenomenon of false target practice of classroom teachings, such as teaching target formalization, audio, blind tendency, and so on, from the inherent logic of teaching goal, main body, and the environment needed to support the Angle of real teaching goal design were analyzed, and the purpose is to make the classroom teaching target concern and attention, really play its proper role, And through the teaching practice of teachers, to promote the effectiveness of classroom teaching. Wang Wei (2010) sorted out the classification theory of teaching objectives and regarded lesson type and lesson segment as important factors affecting the deepening of classroom teaching objectives. He provided ways for expanding lesson type and lesson segment objectives based on theories of lesson type and lesson segment objectives. Most scholars discussed the characteristics of teaching objective design from the perspective of necessity, but Weng Ganming (2012) discussed what teaching objectives are not necessarily like from the opposite perspective, for example, comprehensive and complete teaching objectives may not be feasible, teaching objectives may not be preset or should be preset before class, and the expression and development of teaching objectives may not be feasible. Wang Xiaochun (2020) proposed teaching objectives are the expected teaching results. The teaching objective is not only the beginning point and foundation of teaching, but also the foundation of teaching assessment, which serves both as a directive and a regulatory role. To some extent, this reversal of thinking has extended people's research ideas and perspectives. Classroom teaching objectives research offers the author research ideas and theoretical references for the study of classroom teaching objectives design, as well as serving as a source of inspiration.
(2)Research on the design of teaching objectives
Educational scholars in China have also made a deep discussion on the principles of teaching objective design. Liu Yanwen and Dong Yan (2009) summarized the principles of teaching objective design in their paper, namely, “Four combinations: unity and flexibility, operability and experience, localization and integrity, presetting and generation”. Bao Feng (2011), in problems and principles of junior high school English teaching objective design, mentioned the principles that should be followed to improve the effectiveness of teaching objective design: student-centered, operable and detectable, and hierarchical setting.
In the literature search and reading, the author found that the current literature about the teaching goal design, the design principles of the teaching goals books or articles and many, but the mentioned target design principles are more fragmented, insufficient system, a lack of theoretical basis, and appeared in an article meaning repetition principle, these are in part caused by target design principles of chaos, Front-line teachers are not easy to master and have a limited guiding effect on the design of teaching objectives.
Therefore, the author hopes that through studying the principle of a classroom teaching goal design, then putting forward some specific and feasible strategy, achieve the unity of principle and flexibility, so as to make the English classroom teaching goal design has the basis of the principle of height, there is also a method can be the reference on the level of strategy, coupled with first-line teachers' teaching wisdom, In order to achieve the effectiveness of teaching objective design, and finally, achieve the purpose of improving the efficiency of English classroom teaching.
(3)Research on the design of English teaching objectives
Chen Fang (2006) systematically analyzed some problems in the design of English classroom teaching objectives in her paper and illustrated specific methods of designing English classroom teaching objectives by applying behavioral goal theory with real cases in teaching. And discusses in detail the specific methods of designing teaching objectives according to the four elements of behavioral objectives (object, behavior, condition, and degree).
Chen Liqin (2009) systematically analyzed some problems in the design of English teaching objectives. This paper expounds the specific methods of English teaching objective design by using behavioral objective theory. Li Yumei and Chen Jingbo (2010) identified typical issues in the creation of teaching objectives and demonstrated a variety of issues in high school with particular teaching objective examples. The theme is misplaced, the direction of action is not clear, the three-dimensional target is incomplete, the target is big and empty, and specific improvement and modification suggestions are put forward. Bu Yuhua (2011) pointed out that there are four kinds of problems in the design of English teaching objectives for primary schools in China: separation of objectives, unclear levels, abstraction, simplification and superficiality, and put forward suggestions. Wang Liyuan (2008) also pointed out the problems of teaching objectives, such as vague understanding of the connotation of teaching objectives, insufficient attention and lack of ability to analyze teaching objectives.
Xia Guming (2009) discussed three strategies that should be adopted in the design of English teaching objectives: target integration strategy, target dislocation strategy and target monitoring strategy, so as to reduce teaching costs and improve teaching efficiency. Li Wei (2013) pointed out that the classification of the five learning results proposed by Gagne was consistent with the five learning objectives of the new curriculum standard. It provides a basis for making teaching objectives scientifically and reasonably. For example, let students clearly understand the teaching objectives, so that they learn more purposeful, so as to improve their learning efficiency. Zeng Jiayan (2012) expounded the relationship between teaching objective design and effective teaching and explained the importance of teaching objective design. According to him, only via a thorough and in-depth research of English curriculum standards, students' learning conditions, and teaching content can we develop the teaching objectives that will guide classroom instruction and, eventually, improve classroom instruction's effectiveness.
Meng Kun (2013) discussed the importance and basis of the design of teaching objectives, and proposed that teachers should treat the design of classroom teaching objectives with a research attitude. Teachers should be capable of analyzing and reflecting on teaching objective design, as well as comprehending, thinking about, and
summarizing the experience of each teaching objective design activity. Yan Jin (2015) stressed the significance of high school English teachers knowing and establishing teaching objectives, as well as the misunderstandings and challenges that occur in high school English teachers' understanding and designing teaching objectives.
Multiple viewpoints and three-dimensional thinking should be addressed while designing educational objectives, according to Li Chengbin and You Yangyang (2020). Specific classroom teaching goals should be presented in a timely and complete manner.
Based on a complete examination of the research on teaching objectives at home and abroad, the author finds that teaching objectives have drawn the attention of academics and teachers at home and abroad, and have achieved beneficial results. Foreign study is mostly concerned with theoretical problems, such as the classification and presentation of classroom teaching objectives. The majority of domestic research on English teaching objective design is theoretical and focuses on difficulties and techniques. Furthermore, the majority of publications on middle school English classroom teaching objectives are reflections and summaries of real classroom practice activities by front-line instructors. The material is brief, the tactics and strategies are often superficial, and the theoretical depth is minimal, resulting in poor promotion.
Chapter Three Research Methods
This chapter mainly discusses the research questions, research participants, research instruments, and finally introduces data collection and analysis.
The purpose of this study is to examine the current state of English teaching objectives design and implementation, identify flaws, and provides an optimization strategy for English teaching objectives in junior high school. Three research issues are addressed in this study.
(1) What is the current situation of the design of English teaching objectives in junior high school?
(2) What is the current situation of the implementation of English teaching objectives in junior high school?
(3)What are the deficiencies in the design and implementation of English teaching objectives?
A questionnaire survey was done among 106 junior high school English teachers in Yantai for this study (Table 3.1). Furthermore, six English teachers (Table 3.2) from junior high schools were chosen at random. This study involved a text analysis of the teaching objectives, as well as observation and a semi-structured interview with six English teachers.
Table 3.1 The Basic Information of 106 Junior High School English Teachers
Basic Information Item Number Percentage
Gender Male 20 18.87%
Female 86 81.13%
Teaching Years 1~5 25 23.58%
6~10 29 27.36%
11~15 25 23.58%
16~20 17 16.04%
More than 20 10 9.43%
Qualification Associate degree 7 6.60%
Bachelor's degree 68 64.15%
Master's degree 31 29.25%
Major English 94 88.68%
Non-English 12 11.32%
Table 3.2 The Basic Information of Six English Teachers
Teachers Gender Teaching Years Highest Academic
T1 Female 1~5 Master's degree English
T2 Female 11~15 Bachelor's degree English
T3 Male 6~10 Bachelor's degree English
T4 Female More than 20 Bachelor's degree English
T5 Female 11~15 Master's degree English
T6 Female 1~5 Bachelor's degree English
This section introduces the research instruments, including questionnaire, semi-structured interview, observation, and text analysis.
This questionnaire (Appendix One) mainly used Wenjuanxing, a website collecting data, to ensure the randomness and comprehensiveness of the research results.
This study used the questionnaire approach to explore junior high school English instructors in Yantai to learn more about their understanding of teaching objectives and how they were designed. This questionnaire was adapted from Cao Shutong's (2014) and Zhang Yang's (2016) questionnaires to better suit the assessment of the present state of English teaching target design in junior high schools.
This study's questionnaire was divided into two sections: basic information and 37 multiple-choice questions. All 37 questions were created using a 4-point Likert scale. The following are the dimensions of the questionnaire's design.
Table 3.3 Questionnaire Dimensions and Items
Attitude towards teaching goal design 1~5
Understanding of teaching objectives 6~12
Understanding of the basis of teaching goal design 13~25
Understanding of the design and implementation of teaching objectives 26~30
Understanding of self-reflection and development after class 31~37
In this study, a semi-structured interview was used to supplement and complement the questionnaire survey. The author developed an interview structure (Appendix Two) and ten interview questions. Table 3.4 shows the dimensions of the interview.
Table 3.4 Interview Dimensions and Items
Understanding of teaching goal design 1~4
Understanding of the design and implementation of teaching objectives 5~7
Reasons for the deficiencies between design and implementation 8~10
The author set the recording equipment in the classroom for non-interference study, using the teaching objectives in 12 teaching plans as a guide. Following the class, the author meticulously noted the completion of important teaching objectives by junior high school English teachers. A total of 12 junior high school English classes were observed by the author. Then keep track of whether the six English teachers had completed all of the required teaching objectives. The dimensions of observation are as follows.
Table 3.5 Observation Dimensions and Items
Observation Explicitness Three-dimensional teaching objectives
Implicitness ABCD teaching objective model
Table 3.6 and Table 3.7 are the two tables for observation. Table 3.6 sets three dimensions based on the three-dimensional teaching objectives. Table 3.7 is based on the ABCD teaching model to observe the behavior subjects in class. If these goals are achieved in the class, draw the corresponding “✓”.
Table 3.6 Observation Table 1
Items 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Emotion and Value
Table 3.7 Observation Table 2
^Ubec^eachi;;^ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
This study collected 12 teaching plans from the above six teachers and took 42 English teaching objectives as the research object of text analysis. The following is the number of teaching objectives of each teacher:
Table 3.8 Statistical Table of Teaching Objectives
Plan(No.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Number 5 3 4 3 3 4 3 2 5 3 4 3
3.4Data Collection and Analysis
The questionnaire, text analysis, observation, and semi-structured interview were adopted in this research. The data collection procedures are shown in Figure 3.1.
Step 5: Interview these six English teachers
Figure 3.1 Data Collection Procedures
First, the author surveyed of junior high school English instructors in Yantai using the Wenjuanxing method to determine the current state of junior high school English teaching objectives design. It was possible to collect a total of 106 completed surveys. The author summarized the data and imported the statistical data into Excel to obtain the average score for each dimension. A total of 12 lesson ideas were gathered by the author after selecting six junior high school English teachers at random. These lesson plans contained 42 different teaching objectives. The author's teaching objectives were divided according to the ABCD teaching model, three-dimensional teaching objectives, and the SMART concept. To count the number of each dimension, the author made use of Excel.
The author did 12 class observations to have a better understanding of the existing situation regarding the implementation of English teaching objectives in junior high school. The author recorded the data following the ABCD teaching model and three-dimensional teachingobjectives, and then imported the observation scale data into an Excel spreadsheet for analysis.
Microsoft Excel was used to analyze the data and perform statistical descriptive analysis in this study.
Chapter Four Results and Discussion
This chapter mainly introduces the current situation of English teachingobjectives' design and implementation in junior high schools and includes their deficiencies.
4.1Current Situation of English Teaching Objectives' Design in Junior High School
This section discussed the current situation of English teaching objectives' design in junior highschool.Theauthorexplored this situation using these theories, including three-dimensional teaching objectives, ABCD teaching objective model, and SMART principle.
4.1.1Content of Teaching Objectives Based on Three-dimensional Teaching Objectives
The author analyzed and counted 42 teaching objectives in 12 teaching design schemes according to the definition of each dimension of three-dimensional teaching objectives. There are 26 knowledge and skill objectives, five process and method objectives, and 11 emotion and value objectives among the 42 teaching objectives. The teachingobjectives of the three dimensions are shown in Figure 4.1.
Figure 4.1 Proportion Diagram of Three-dimensional TeachingObjective
As can be seen from the above figure, junior high school English teachers pay most attention to knowledge and skill objectives, followed by emotion and value, and finally process and method when designingteachingobjectives. It can be seen that the teaching of junior high school English teachers is still based on the imparting of knowledge. However, if teachers place too much emphasis on knowledge and skill while ignoring process and method, emotion and value, students will be unable to actively discover, ponder and solve problems. What's more, their personality development will be ineffective.
In terms of knowledge and skill objectives, there are 26 out of 42 teaching objectives, accounting for 62% of the total. For instance, consider the following teachingobjectives:
(1)Ask the students to use some words, phrases, and sentences to talk about the future.
(2)95% of the students can master Words: pencil, pen, book, eraser, pencil box, schoolbag, dictionary, and so on.
(3)Be able to know the pronunciation and meaning of new words such as screen, seat, ticket, comfortable, and so on.
In terms of process and method objectives, five of 42 teaching objectives are process and method objectives, accounting for about 12% of the total teaching objectives. For instance, consider the followingteachingobjectives:
(1)Talk about your changes through the visual perception of pictures. And talk about others' changes through task-based activities like group surveys.
(2)Make a menu.
(3)Experience the process and methods of cooperative learning through desk-mate dialogue and group activities
Among the 42 teaching objectives, there are 11 emotion and value objectives, accounting for 26% of the total teaching objectives. For instance, consider the following teaching objectives:
(1)Be able to know the best for others may not be the best for us, choose what you love and love what you choose.
(2)Let the students know the knowledge about sleep and recognize which sleep habits are beneficial to guide the students to develop good sleep habits.
(3)Cultivate students' competitive consciousness and challenge themselves constantly.
4.1.2Description of Teaching Objectives Based on ABCD Teaching Objective Model
For A (Audience), among the 42 teaching objectives, there are 23 teaching objectives taking students as behavior subjects. What's more, there are 11 teaching objectives taking teachers as behavior subjects, and 12 have no behavior subjects. Based on the above description of behavior subjects in teaching objectives, the author divides behavior subjects in 42 teaching objectives into three categories, as shown in Figure 4.2.
Figure 4.2 Proportion Diagram of ABCD TeachingObjective Model
It can be seen that when junior high school English teachers design teaching objectives, there are some problems, such as behavior subject dislocation, ambiguous positioning and not takingstudents as the main body.
Among the 42 teaching objectives, 23 of them are students, accounting for about 50% of the total teaching objectives. For instance, consider the following teaching objectives:
(1)Students are able to know the pronunciation and meaning of new words, such as screen, seat, ticket, comfortable, and so on. By reading the title and the picture, students will be able to figure out what the paragraph is about.
(2)Be able to listen carefully to the speeches of teachers and classmates, find their own or others' mistakes in the process, point out and correct them, and actively use English to express and communicate
Among the 42 teaching objectives, 11 of them are teachers, accounting for about 26% of the total teaching objectives. For instance, consider the following teaching objectives:
(1)Help students learn and master the key words, phrases, and sentence patterns in this lesson
(2)Through the topic, let the students feel the affection of family, friendship, teachers and students around, train the students to love life, cherish the time, to realize their life values and strive for the spirit.
Among the 42 teaching objectives, 8 teaching objectives have no subject of behavior, accounting for about 24% of the total teaching objectives. For instance, consider the following teaching objectives:
(1)Understand the customs of different countries and have the courage to express their own views and opinions.
(2)Be able to generalize and summarize.
Based on the analysis of B (Behavior), it is found that 41 of the 42 teaching objectives contain action verbs. The author made statistics on the frequency of action verbs and found that the action verbs with high frequency included grasp, learn, use, cultivate, finish, understand, express, and discuss, as shown in Table 4.1.
Table 4.1 Number of Behavior verbs
Behavior Verb Number
As can be seen from the above table, “grasp” is most frequently used by junior high school English teachers in designing teaching objectives, followed by “learn” and “use”. However, these high-frequency action verbs belong to the implicit cognitive category and their concepts are vague. Therefore, such action verbs cannot make learners aware of the degree they should achieve after learning, and it is difficult for teachers to observe and measure learners. The description of behavior can solve the problem of “what to do”, indicating what kind of ability learners should have after the class. Therefore, verbs that can reflect external behavior changes should be used as far as possible in the expression, and these verbs should be measurable, assessable, specific, and clear.
To define goals, teachers can use words like “describe”, “identify”, “label”, “list”, “name”, “outline”, “select” and so on. Talk about, defend, distinguish, describe, explain, extend, generalize, give examples, trade, summarize, etc. can be an excellent choice when they wish to employ action verbs to show understanding. Change, demonstrate, alter, predict, prepare, exhibit, produce, utilize, and other action verbs are examples of verbs that demonstrate the ability to use.
For C (Condition), only 9 of the 42 teaching objectives describe the conditions of behavior generation. For instance, consider the following teaching objectives:
(1)Through fast reading, can understand the general idea of the article and understand the layout structure of the article.
(2)Students can write simple promotional ads by using key sentence patterns.
Most English teachers fail to set the conditions of behavior generation when designing teaching objectives. This phenomenon reflects that junior high school English teachers lack the ability to presuppose the teaching situation.
For D (Degree), only 10 of the 42 teaching objectives describe the degree of behavioral performance. For instance, consider the following teaching objectives:
(1) Most students can learn to use key sentence patterns to ask about object attributes and confirm ownership.
(2) 80% can talk about things are supposed to do in these different situations
Most English teachers lack the degree of behavior performance when designing teaching objectives, which reflects that high school English teachers lack restrictions on the completion of objectives, which is not conducive to paying attention to the differences of students.
In short, although the teaching objectives of junior high school English involve various dimensions of the ABCD teaching objective model, there are still many deficiencies in the design of each dimension. Based on the analysis, the author found that there were some deficiencies in the design of junior English teaching objectives, such as the misplacement and fuzzy positioning of the subject of the action and the vague and broad use of action verbs. In addition, the author also found that junior high school English teachers would ignore the conditions of behavior and the degree of behavior performance when designingteachingobjectives.
4.1.3Principles of Teaching Objectives Based on SMART Principle
Amongthese teaching objectives, there are 25 in line with the principle of specific, 10 in line with the principle of measurable, 27 in line with the principle of attainable, 20 in line with the principle of relevant, and 5 in line with the principle of timed, as shown in Figure 4.3.
■ Specific ■ Measurable ■ Aitanable Reliant Timed
Figure 4.3 Proportion Diagram of the SMART Principle
As can be seen from the figure above, junior high school English teachers are able to design teaching objectives in line with the specific principle and attainable principle, which account for about 29% and 31% of the total teaching objectives respectively. Secondly, junior high school English teachers can design teaching objectives in line with the principle of relevance when designing teaching objectives, accounting for about 23% of the total teaching objectives. However, the teaching objectives designed by English teachers seldom consider the principle of measurable, that is, they tend to use broad action verbs. The teaching objectives of measurable principle account for about 11% of the total teaching objectives. The least is that the teaching objectives in line with the principle of timed only account for 6% of the total teaching objectives. This minimum ratio shows that English teachers neglect to set time limits for each teaching goal.
Specific teaching objectives describe the specific behavior results of learners after learning. Among the 42 teaching objectives, 25 are in line with the principle of concreteness, accounting for 29% of the total teaching objectives. For instance, consider the following teaching objectives:
(1)Further consolidate sentence patterns related to objects and colors and be able to use them flexibly
(2)Learn to use “be afraid of”, and use the structure “used to do sth.” to talk about the past and present changes of yourself and others.
(3)Be able to talk about clothes and prices, and write simple promotional advertisements.
Measurable teaching objectives are generally expressed using verbs that can reflect external behavioral changes, rather than implicit cognitive categories such as “grasp”, “learn” and “use”. Among these 42 teaching objectives, 10 are in line with the principle of measurable, accounting for about 11% of the total teaching objectives. For instance, consider the following teaching objectives:
(1) Students can spell the key words of Unit 3.
(2) Review the grammar points of the last lesson.
(3)Consolidate and practice the use of infinitives.
The teaching objectives of the principle of realizable can be achieved by students of different levels after certain efforts. Among the 42 teaching objectives, 27 are in line with the principle of realizable, accounting for about 31% of the total teaching objectives. For instance, consider the following teaching objectives:
(1)Cultivate students' good reading habits and master reading skills.
(2)Master Words: pencil, pen, book, eraser, pencil box, schoolbag, dictionary, etc.
(3)Be able to experience the process and method of cooperative learning through desk-mate dialogue and group activities.
Relevant principle teaching objectives refer to that the teaching objectives should be related to the English Curriculum Standards for Compulsory Education (2011 Edition), the teaching materials and students, and the teaching objectives of each lesson. Among these 42 teaching objectives, 20 are in line with the relevance principle, accounting for about 23% of the total teaching objectives, such as teaching objectives:
(1) Through fast reading, I can understand the general idea of the article and understand the layout structure of the article.
(2) Understand the customs of different countries and dare to express their views and opinions
(3)Be able to compare at least three things and find out the most with the superlative degree.
The teaching objectives of the timing principle describe the time of teaching activities and improve the efficiency of the English classroom. Among the 42 teaching objectives, only five meet the timed principle, accounting for about 6% of the total teaching objectives. For example, teaching objectives:
(1) Read quickly to understand the general idea of the passage.
(2) After class, students write a composition about environmental protection using the knowledge points in this lesson.
The author analyzed 42 teaching objectives in the 12 teaching design schemes collected according to ABCD teaching objective model, three-dimensional teaching objective, and SMART principle. The results of the analysis answered the first research question, namely, the design dimensions of junior high school English teaching objectives.
According to the findings, most English teachers use a three-dimensional framework when creating teaching objectives. However, due to a lack of understanding of the three-dimensional design concept, the design of three-dimensional teaching objectives focuses too much on knowledge and skill while ignoringprocess and method. Although junior high school English teachers can use the ABCD teaching objective model to account for the two factors of action subject and action verb in the statement of teaching objectives, there are issues with dislocation and fuzzy positioningof the action subject, and the use of action verb is vague and broad. The circumstances and degree of performance of the behaviors are overlooked by English teachers. Junior high school English teachers create teaching objectives that adhere to the concepts of specificity, attainableness, relevance, and concreteness. However, the quantifiable and timed principles are rarely considered.
4.2Current Situation of English Teaching Objectives' Implementation in Junior High School
This section discussed the current situation of English teaching objectives' implementation in junior high school. The author explored this situation using the three-dimensional teachingobjectives, as well as the ABCD teachingobjective model.
4.2.1Implementation Based on Three-dimensional Teaching Objectives
To understand the implementation of junior high school English teachers' teaching objectives in the classroom and ensure the authenticity of the data, the author placed the recording equipment in the classroom. Sort out the audio-visual materials and record the data. The objects of this classroom observation are six junior high school English teachers who have been selected, and a total of 12 classes have been observed and recorded. After class, the author observed and recorded each class according to the 12 teaching plans and audio-visual materials collected. If these goals are achieved in the class, draw the corresponding The following are tables to show the results of the
teaching objective design. What's more, Table 4.2 sets three dimensions based on the three-dimensional teaching objectives.
Table 4.2 Result of Implementation of English Teaching Objective
Items 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Knowledge ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
Skill ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
Emotion and Value ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
According to the tabular data, the author summarized the data, as shown in Figure
Figure 4.4 Result of Implementation of English Teaching Objective
The design of teaching objectives has three dimensions. According to Figure 4.4, the author found knowledge goals appear in each goal design, which means that teachers attach the most importance to language knowledge. Among the 12 classes, 6 of them are related to the teaching of emotion and values. However, the teaching activities on skills are only involved in 5 classes. And only one class covers all three dimensions.
For the dimension of knowledge, teachers often extend based on teaching objectives, expand more knowledge points, and use a variety of teaching methods, but there are no teaching activities related to other objectives in class. Taking teaching plan 3 as an example, its teaching objectives are:
(1)Further consolidate the sentence patterns related to objects and colors and be able to use them flexibly:
--- It's a/an...
---Spell it, please.
---What color is it？
(2)Master the pronunciation of consonant letter combinations “sh, ch, and ck ” in words.
(3)Be able to spell words and remember words according to the pronunciation rules of “sh, ch, and ck”.
(4)Cultivate students' competitive consciousness and the spirit of constantly challenging themselves.
In class, the teachers listed almost all the words and example sentences and repeated them in many ways. Only mechanical repetition and instilling knowledge did not improve students' autonomous learning ability.
The author found that some teachers described all dimensions when designing teaching objectives. However, in the actual teaching process, the teacher only paid attention to the teaching of knowledge, ignoring other objectives. Taking teaching plan 10 as an example, its teaching plan includes the design of the objectives of knowledge, skill, and emotion. For instance, consider the following teaching objectives:
(1)Knowledge level: be able to know the pronunciation and meaning of new words, such as screen, seat, ticket, comfortable, and so on.
(2)Ability level: be able to compare at least three things and find out the most with a superlative degree.
(3)Emotion level: be able to know the best for others may not be the best for us, choose what you love and love what you choose.
Teaching activities in other dimensions are not possible in class because teachers' explanations of knowledge take too long, leaving them with insufficient time.
4.2.2Behavior Subjects in Class Based on ABCD Teaching Model
Furthermore, the author employed the ABCD teaching approach to examine the behavior of the subjects in class, which he found to be effective. As a result of their actions in class, the students came up with the following results.
Table 4.3 The Result of the Behavior Subjects in Class
Subject ^JTeachingPlan^ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Teacher ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
Students ✓ ✓ ✓
According to the tabular data, the author summarized the data, as shown in Figure
Figure 4.5 The Result of the Behavior Subjects in Class
Among the 12 classes, 9 are teachers, accounting for 75% of the total. The student as the subject English classroom has three sections, accounting for 25% of the total. This is not in line with the stipulation that students are the main body of behavior in the ABCD teaching goal model. Furthermore, the author discovered that professors often dominate classroom teaching activities, and students'passion for answering questions is low. Teachers typically provide questions to students, who then respond. Traditional and easy teaching methods are used. However, the student as a classroom subject is frequently more active, and student participation is extremely strong. Teachers have also devised a number of educational exercises to pique students' interests. As a result, when planning lessons, teachers should consider a variety of teaching activities from the standpoint of students.
4.3Deficiencies in the Design and Implementation of English Teaching Objectives
According to the current situation of English teaching objectives' design and implementation in junior high school, the author explores their deficiencies in this section.
4.3.1 Design of English Teaching Objectives
(1) Deficiencies of English Teachers' Cognition of Teaching Objectives
The author intended to first gain an understanding of junior high school English teachers' understanding of teaching objectives, as well as their design and implementation of teaching objectives, to investigate the reasons for the differences in the design and implementation of teaching objectives. The author distributed surveys to junior high school English teachers in Yantai and received 106 responses in return. In addition, the author employed the interview approach to investigate the reasons for the discrepancies and how they could be reduced in the future. According to Table 3.3, the dimensions of the questionnaire's design are divided into five parts.
First and foremost, the results of the questionnaire are examined and discussed in detail. The questionnaire consists of 37 questions, which are grouped into five categories based on their answers. Figure 4.6 depicts the average scores for the various dimensions:
Figure 4.6 The Average Scores of Different Dimensions
According to the graph in Figure 4.6, average scores for each of the five dimensions are different.
Among them, the average score of dimension 5 (reflection and development on the design of teaching objectives after class) is the highest, which is 3.77. This reflects that most junior high school English teachers believe that it is necessary to reflect on teaching objectives after class, and strongly agree that junior high school English teachers should seek various methods to improve their development and growth in teaching objectives. But it also reflects that teachers may have questions about teaching objectives and need help and support.
The average score of dimension 2 (understanding of teaching goal design) (3.73) is relatively high, which reflects the importance that most senior high school English teachers attach to teaching goals.
The average scores of dimension 1 (attitude towards teaching goal design) and
dimension 4 (understanding of teaching goal design and Implementation) are 3.65 and 3.68 respectively. This reflects that most senior high school English teachers have a certain understanding and knowledge of the design and implementation of teaching objectives, but they may lack a comprehensive and profound understanding.
Dimension 3 is the understandingof the basis for the design of teachingobjectives. Its average score is only 3.42, the lowest of the five dimensions. This reflects the differences and some problems when teachers choose the basis of instructional design.
Followingthat, the author conducted a thorough analysis and discussion of the five dimensions.
Dimension 1: Attitude of junior high school English teachers towards teaching objective design (Q1~Q5).
The attitude of English teachers towards the design of teaching objectives has a great influence on English teaching. The average score is shown in Figure 4.7.
Figure 4.7 The Average Scores of Dimension 1
It can be seen from Figure 4.7 that among the 1~5 questions, the first one, the necessity of teaching objective design, has the highest average score of 4 points. The average score of question 1 shows that junior high school English teachers think it is necessary to design teachingobjectives, which will guide teachers to choose appropriate 46
teaching content, teaching methods, and teaching activities.
Among the 1~5 questions, question 2 had the lowest average score of 3.22. The second topic is to investigate whether junior high school English teachers think that the design of teaching objectives is just for teaching inspection. The results show that the majority of English teachers have a good attitude towards the design of teaching objectives. They think that the teaching objectives should not only be designed for public courses or high-quality courses. However, due to the teaching pressure, the teaching plans designed by junior high school English teachers in ordinary classes are simpler than those designed in high-quality classes.
Question 3, 4, and 5 all had similar average scores of 3.66, 3.56, and 3.72, respectively. This demonstrates that junior high school English teachers believe they should take teaching objectives seriously and that separate teaching objectives should be created for different classes. This is since different classes in a school have varied needs, and the same teaching objectives do not apply to all students.
Overall, the majority of junior high school English instructors believe that creating teaching objectives is vital and that they should create different teaching objectives based on the different types of teaching objects they encounter. If you are going to set precise teaching objectives for each lesson, you should take it seriously.
Dimension 2: Understanding of teaching objectives (Q6~Q12).
It is critical for junior high school English teachers to understand teaching objectives and how they are designed, as this is the foundation for developing teaching objectives for their students. The purpose of the questionnaire is to learn more about the perspectives of junior high school English teachers on their students'learning objectives. The average score is depicted in Figure 4.8.
Figure 4.8 The Average Scores of Dimension 2
The average score for question 6 was 3.88, the highest of the 12 questions. This demonstrates that the majority of junior high school English teachers believe that junior high school English teaching design should adhere to the syllabus and fulfill the requirements of the syllabus, i.e., achieve the teachingobjectives.
Q9 and Q11 both had the same average score of 3.81. This demonstrates that junior high school English teachers have afirm grasp of the role of teaching objectives, which can aid in the development of more effective teachingobjectives.
The scores of Q7, Q8, and Q10 are the same, which indicates that most junior high school English teachers believe that teaching objectives are not only designed by teachers but also achieved by students. In addition, it can also be seen that teaching objectives can guide learners to complete their tasks in the learningprocess.
In short, in terms of understandingof teaching objectives, most junior high school English teachers know the definition and role of teaching objectives and have a good understandingof teachingobjectives.
Dimension 3: Understandingof the basis of teachingobjective design (Q13~Q25).
In the process of designing teaching objectives, English teachers should not only base themselves on the teaching materials but also take into account the foundation of learners. The average score is shown in Figure 4.9.
It is not difficult to see from the figure that the scores of Q15, Q17, and Q18 are the same, and they are in high segments. It shows that junior high school English teachers believe that the design of teaching objectives should be student-centered and designed according to the actual situation of students.
The average scores for Q13, Q14, and Q22 did not differ statistically from one another. The majority of teachers believe that children should be the primary focus of the teaching objective statement, however, a minority of teachers believe that instructors should be the primary focus of the teaching objective statement. This demonstrates that, even though some junior high school English teachers are aware that students constitute the primary body of the teaching objective design, they continue to see themselves as the primary body in the text narration. In addition, junior high school English teachers are aware that they must develop educational objectives that are by the physical and psychological features of their students, taking into consideration their peculiarities.
The average scores of Q16, Q19, and Q20 are in a medium state in this dimension. It shows that most junior high school English teachers think that they can design teaching objectives according to their own experience and examination sites.
However, the Q21, Q23, Q24, and Q25 all scored poorly. Among them, the lowest score is Q23, which differs greatly from the average score of Q22. This shows that junior high school English teachers know that appropriate action verbs should be used when designing teaching objectives. The average score of question 23 is 3.44, which indicates that although junior high school English teachers will seriously think about action verbs, they lack awareness of the correct use of action verbs. The Q21 indicates that most teachers do not copy the teachingobjectives of others and pay attention to the diversity of students. The Q24 and Q25 indicate that some English teachers do not agree with the principle of designing teaching objectives and the effective mode of teaching objectives when compilingteachingobjectives.
Dimension 4: Understanding of the design and implementation of teaching objectives (Q26~Q30).
Questions 26 to 30 of the questionnaire survey are related to the understanding of the design and implementation of teaching objectives, and their average scores are shown in Figure 4.10.
i a 3.7S
■Jb I vf
Q26 Q29 Q30
Figure 4.10 The Average Scores of Dimension 4
The Q27 and Q28 questions had the highest average score of 3.78. That the majority of junior high school English teachers believe that the teaching process revolves around the teaching objectives is demonstrated by this statistic Additionally, it reveals that junior high school English teachers pay close attention to the activities of teachers and students in the classroom that are connected to the teaching objectives and standards.
In the Q26, Q29, and Q30 sections, the results were not particularly impressive. It is explained in the Q26 that in classroom instruction, junior high school English teachers rarely directly inform students of the objectives of the lesson. The Q29 indicates that some teachers are not convinced that designing instruction entirely around teaching objectives will result in the achievement of objectives other than those outlined in the teaching objectives outlined in the instruction. As indicated by the Q30, some teachers do not agree with the teaching objectives, which might put the classroom's overall quality to the test.
Dimension 5: Understanding of after-class self-reflection and development (Q31-37).
The creation of teaching objectives is heavily influenced by the self-reflection and development of English teachers. After class, teachers can reflect on their ineffective teaching objectives, and professional development can help teachers improve their cognition and ability to establish teaching objectives. The average scores are shown in Figure 4.11 for items 31 to 37 of the questionnaire, which focuses on junior high school English teachers' awareness of self-reflection and development.
Figure 4.11 The Average Scores of Dimension 5
Except for Q32 and Q33, the average scores of other questions were all in the high section. This demonstrates that the vast majority of English teachers believe that they should read English teaching materials regularly to increase their understanding of education and teaching. Furthermore, they should take advantage of a variety of outlets and possibilities to further their development. Some teachers in Q32 and Q33, on the other hand, did not reflect on or discuss their teaching objective design after class, and they did not consult with their colleagues.
What's more, the results of the interview were analyzed and discussed. During the interviews, the author recorded them on a cell phone. After the interview, the author transcribed the teacher's answers as research materials for analysis. The researchers interviewed six junior high school English teachers on the following ten questions, and randomly selected two teachers' answers to each question.
In order to investigate the understanding of teaching goal design, the results of semi-structured interview are as follows.
According to the first question, the author found that most teachers adopt group lesson preparation followed by individual lesson preparation. More importantly, they have autonomy in lesson preparation.
When designing teaching objectives, most teachers focus on the examination points of the middle school entrance examination. For example, they focus on the words and long sentences of an article when preparing lessons. And they sometimes change the title of the article into the same type of question for training. T6 says:
The first thing I would consider is learning. For example, some classes have a more active classroom atmosphere. When I design teaching plans, There will be more teaching activities about group activities or dialogues. Some classes are dull, so there will be more classroom activities for individual practice.
When it comes to the third question, the English teachers say they have taken the needs of students into account when designing teaching objectives. If they don't consider the needs of students, otherwise class activities cannot be carried out.
When compiling teaching objectives, most teachers focus on the objectives of knowledge and skill to improve students' performance. The dimensions of “process and method” and “emotion and value” are difficult to write, which need to consider students'learning. T4 says:
I will focus on the objective of knowledge and skill because junior high school is still a basic learning period. The emotion and values dimension is a little difficult to write. Because not all articles can rise to the dimension of emotion and value, the goal of emotion and value is difficult to achieve.
In order to investigate the understanding of the design and implementation of teachingobjectives, the results of the semi-structured interview are as follows.
For the fifth question, teachers tend to tell their students the teaching objectives of the lesson. However, some teachers cannot do it due to academic pressure and limited teachingtime. T3 says:
In the past, teaching objectives were presented to students on the blackboard.
As grade 9 students are facing the high school entrance examination, class time is tight, so I will not focus on it in class. But it will be presented to the students on PPT in the open class.
What's more, they think most the teaching objectives can be achieved in the teachingprocess. They do, however, occasionally follow the teaching objectives in their instruction. Because the teaching objective is higher than the students' learning level, and they are unableto comprehend it. The teacher may change a teaching goal that is not very difficult in class. In addition, due to a lack of class time, only part of the goal can be achieved. Sometimes teachers may make the teaching objectives too simple. They may expand their knowledge and add new teaching objectives in class. For the eighth question, junior high schools don't have institutions and organizations to check whether teachers' teachingobjectives are achieved or not.
In order to investigate the reasons for the deficiencies between design and implementation, the results of the semi-structured interview are as follows.
The reasons that cause teachers to deviate from the teachingobjectives are students and schools. Student reactions in class or special situations. For example, some students do not listen carefully in class, which will affect the progress of teaching objectives. Impromptu school meetings, for example, compress class time, and some teaching objectives are not met.
The strategies that can optimize the design and implementation of teaching objectives are:
a.Listen to lectures and share the experiences with colleagues.
b.Learn more about students' learning situations. Through quizzes and conversations, teachers can understand students learningand modify teachingobjectives as appropriate.
(2) Deficiencies in the design of English teachingobjectives
Based on their investigation into the design and practice of teaching objectives for front-line teachers, the researchers discovered that junior high school English teachers are unaware of classroom teaching objectives research, formalization of teaching objectives design, mechanization, and the complexity of implementing teaching objectives.
a.Lack of research consciousness of classroom teachingobjectives.
Many English teachers believe that classroom instruction is solely for the goal of achieving high exam scores, and they place little emphasis on the development of knowledge and skill. They are unconcerned about the cultivation of process and method, emotion and value, and even lack design skills. There are various misconceptions about the meaningand importance of classroom teachingobjectives.
Some English teachers lack the perfect adjustment of classroom teaching objectives. According to the results of the questionnaire survey, few teachers reflect on their teaching objectives and fail to optimize their teaching plans after the teaching process. Most English teachers, especially novice teachers, disregard the improvement and revision of teachingobjectives followingclassroom teaching.
b.Formalization of classroom teachingobjectives.
The content of the teachingobjective design isbroad and empty. Clear and specific teaching objectives can effectively overcome the randomness and blindness of the teaching process. Many English teachers' teaching objectives have broad and empty content. For example, some teachers take “developingstudents' ability to find and solve
problems” as their teaching goal. Some teachers even directly move the curriculum objectives down to the classroom teaching objectives. The teachers did not explain how such broad objectives could be implemented in teaching.
Partial instructors focus solely on knowledge and skill. Most teachers still choose knowledge and skill objective, despite the relevance of process and technique, emotion, and value objectives for students' overall progress. According to the survey results of teaching design literature, most teaching objective knowledge and skill objective design are more specific and detailed, while less attention is paid to the other two dimensions, as shown in Table 4.5.
Table 4.5 Teaching Objective of “Where Did You Go on Vacation?”
Knowledge level: be able to know the pronunciation and meaning of new
words, such as screen, seat, ticket, comfortable, and so on.
Ability level: be able to compare at least three things and find out the most
with a superlative degree.
Emotion level: be able to know the best for others may not be the best for us,
choose what you love and love what you choose.
The absence of hierarchy and difference in the creation of teaching objectives is a flaw in the process. In the three-dimensional objectives, the goal of knowledge and skill serves as the foundation, the goal of process and technique serves as the key, and the ultimate goal of emotion and values serves as the final goal. From low to high, from concrete to abstract, students' cognition follows a law, and the design of educational objectives should be progressive, layer by layer. Most teachers, on the other hand, just list the objectives of their lessons together, completely ignoring the hierarchical nature of the objectives.
How teaching objectives are presented is not standardized. There are several issues with the statement of classroom teaching objectives, including:
a. There is a misunderstanding on the subject of teaching objectives and behavior. The expected effect of students' behavior is the teaching objective, and the topic of students' behavior is not teachers, but rather other students. When it comes to developing instructional objectives, teachers are still considered to be the subject of conduct. Alternatively, there may be both teachers and pupils in the same lesson's teachingobjective design, resultingin a state of confusion.
b. The action verbs are ambiguous. The vast majority of teachers continue to employ action verbs that are difficult to operate and that are rather imprecise, such as grasp, learn, and use, in the creation of their instructional objectives. Figure 4.1 depicts respondents' usage of action verbs in the construction of English classroom teaching objectives, which is based on their responses.
4.3.2Implementation of English Teaching Objectives
The execution of teaching objectives is a difficult task to accomplish. In the new curriculum reform, children will be encouraged to learn independently and in groups, as well as be encouraged to think about their overall growth. This also makes it more difficult for certain teachers to effectively educate in the classroom because they are unfamiliar with the meaning of curricular reform. Students' debates in class are enthusiastic, yet they lack substance. This is particularly true in open-plan classroom settings.
The implementation of teaching objectives is not adaptable in any way. Many English teachers are more concerned with teaching information and duties than with genuine changes in the classroom. Only a few teachers alter the classroom procedure to meet the objectives of the lesson. But the vast majority of teachers ignore the importance of generating resources, and ignore the students' main body status and all-around development.
In conclusion, the reasons for deficiencies in the design and implementation of English teachingobjectives are as follows.
Educational institutions and teachers pay more attention to whether they can get good grades due to the huge pressure of entering schools in China. Although the new curriculum reform has been advocated for many years, teachers also understand the importance of quality education. However, for the sake of school development, schools have to increase the enrollment rate. Teachers must raise their academic standing and get higher-paying jobs if they hope to remain in the field. Our country continues to receive the best marks in the evaluations and selections. Exam evaluation still focuses on assessing basic knowledge and skill.
China's population is large and the basic national conditions of insufficient resources, so China implements large class teaching, sometimes a class of 50 to 70 people. Quality education advocates for the development of every student, no child left behind. Therefore, differential teaching, a personalized teaching model is advocated. However, under the background of large class teaching, students' cognitive levels, interests, and life backgrounds are different. This requires teachers to design different goals according to different students' learning conditions, to meet different students' learning needs. However, the greater the number of students in a class, the more difficult it is to establish distinct goals, implement them, and assess their effectiveness. As a result, the design and implementation of educational objectives are separated from students, and there is a lack of diversity among them, among other issues.
Chapter Five Conclusion
An overview of the major findings, as well as pedagogical implications, limitations of the research, and suggestions for future study, is provided below.
5.1 Major Findings
The present design of junior high school English teaching objectives is the first research finding. The research results obtained through text analysis are as follows: most English teachers take three-dimensional teaching objectives as the basic framework when designing teaching objectives. However, due to a lack of a design concept for three-dimensional teaching objectives, the creation of three-dimensional teaching objectives places an excessive amount of emphasis on knowledge and skill while neglecting process and method, emotion and value objectives. In the statement of teaching objectives, the two factors of subject and verb of action in the ABCD teaching objective model can be consciously considered, but the conditions of behavior generation and the degree of behavior performance are ignored. The designed teaching objectives accord with the principles of realizability, relevance, and concreteness. However, less consideration is given to the principle of measurability and the time limit for each teaching goal is neglected
The present implementation of junior high school English teaching objectives is the second research finding. The research results obtained through classroom observation are as follows: Most junior high school English teachers can arrange appropriate teaching activities according to the teaching objectives designed themselves during the implementation of teaching objectives, and the teaching content can also be restructured according to the teaching objectives designed. However, effective teaching methods are often neglected.
The third research finding is the deficiency of the design and implementation of English teaching objectives in junior high schools. The author discovered several flaws in the design and implementation of middle school English teaching objectives using text analysis, classroom observation, and a questionnaire. The deficiencies are mainly reflected in: lack of awareness of classroom teaching objectives, formalization of teaching objectives, mechanization and complexity of teaching objectives implementation. Teaching direction, incentive, assessment, and feedback are all elements of English classroom teaching objectives that have not been adequately exploited. There are a number of flaws in the design and implementation of English teaching objectives in junior high school as a result of China's examination and assessment system restrictions and the adoption of large class teaching modes.
The author has a thorough understanding of the design and implementation of junior high school English teaching objectives by employing a questionnaire and text analysis of junior high school English teaching objectives. The researcher can establish the classroom teaching objective design strategy after clarifying the existing issues and causes.
(1)The basis of designing English teaching objectives
English textbook production, classroom implementation, and evaluation are all evaluated using The English Curriculum Standards for Compulsory Education (2011 Edition). English teachers should use the curriculum standards as a guide and follow their spirit. There is an emphasis on the unification of tools and humanity, process and technique, emotion and value. For classroom instruction, teachers should use the curriculum's overarching purpose as a criterion, dissect it, and design teaching objectives around it.
Junior High Books for teachers and students are also available in English. Experts produce English textbooks based on The English Curriculum Standards for Compulsory Education (2011 Edition). It also helps junior high English teachers set classroom goals. Teaching resources help teachers perform tasks and reach goals. Teaching objectives should be based on the resources used in the classroom. However, in this age of information explosion, teachers should look beyond textbooks to educational resources. To accomplish the objectives, junior high English teachers must use textbooks or instructional content.
The level and cognitive level of pupils are crucial factors in their learning environment. The subjects who take the greatest subjective initiative are the students. The results of student behavior should be utilized to evaluate teaching objectives. The use of curriculum standards and teaching materials is commonplace. Personalized teaching goals are based on student's age, cognitive level, prior knowledge, and experience. Thus, assessing students' prior knowledge, learning level, and cognitive traits is critical to effective teaching.
(2)The principle of designing English teaching objectives
Objectives for classroom education are interconnected, affecting and restricting each other. Curriculum, students, and textbook materials should be organically interwoven with knowledge and skill, process and method, emotion and value. The goal design of the “process and method” is crucial in achieving success. The development of “emotion and value” is not something to be taken lightly. There is a strong connection between the three in terms of educational objectives. The objective of knowledge and skill acts as the carrier in this scenario, while the objective of the process and method acts as the middleman.
The design of teaching objectives should change the former subject of teachers into the subject of students and state the change of the result of students' behavior from the perspective of students. The English Curriculum Standards for Compulsory Education (2011 Edition) proposed “to meet the needs of different students to learn English”, which is to pay attention to the differences of students. Multiple intelligence and the “zone of proximal development” theory also provide theoretical support for differential goal design. Differential objectives mainly adopt gradient teaching objectives strategy. Through the establishment of distinct levels and distinct needs for gradient-type goals, it is possible to foster the development of students at various levels.
(3)The mode of teaching design with teaching objectives as the core
Classroom teaching objectives are the starting point and destination of teaching activities, which have the functions of directing, evaluating, regulating, and feedback to teaching. Objective-oriented teaching design generally includes three parts. The first is analysis instruction. Analysis of teaching should be based on curricular standards, analysis of learning situations, analysis of textbooks, and analysis of the external environment. Secondly, the instructional activities themselves. Teaching objectives are critical when designing a lesson. Guidance, evaluation, motivation, and feedback are all functions that are determined by the instructional objectives. Finally, the teaching design is evaluated and adjusted. self-evaluation, peer discussion, and trade are all ways for teachers to improve. Alternatively, in the teaching process, timely adjustments are made based on student responses.
(4)The student-centered teaching design model
When it comes to classroom instruction, English teachers primarily rely on the traditional teaching style. Teachers lay a higher focus on imparting information and skills to pupils than they do on providing them with learning opportunities. This strategy does not meet the needs of curricular reform and does not provide students with a strong voice in the decision-making process. In light of these concerns, it is necessary to alter the educational approach. First and foremost, empower students to be the rulers of their learning environments by reclaiming the classroom for them. The teacher served just as a guide, and then disappeared into the background.
(5)Multiple evaluation methods
At the conclusion of English classroom instruction, many English teachers administer paper assessments to determine whether or not pupils have gained any new knowledge. Although this method of evaluation is inexpensive in cost and high in efficiency, it does have some drawbacks. Emotion and values objectives, as well as process and method objectives, are difficult to evaluate in this context. When evaluating classroom instruction, it is possible to combine objective implementation effect, quantitative and qualitative evaluation, process evaluation, and result evaluation. The mixed-method approach is what this is referred to as.
5.3Limitations of the Research
Due to the limitations of its disciplinary background, the insufficiency of theoretical research level, the shortage of research time, and the limitation of investigation scope, there are still many deficiencies and areas worthy of consideration in this research. The details are as follows:
First of all, the sample size of this study is relatively small, and only 106 junior high school English teachers in Yantai are investigated. For this study, there are six English teachers were randomly selected. The author collected 12 teaching plans from these English teachers, totaling 42 teaching objectives. The author made 12 classroom observations, resulting in unrepresentative research results.
Secondly, the author points out that the design and implementation strategies of junior high school English classroom teaching objectives need to be demonstrated.
5.4Suggestions for the Future Research
Based on the research results and shortcomings of this paper, the author will provide some suggestions for subsequent related research. First, to make the results more persuasive, subsequent studies can expand the study area and increase the number of subjects.
Secondly, the strategies proposed in this paper for optimizing the design and implementation of English teaching objectives can be tested in a small range. According to the experimental results, make more suitable teaching strategies.
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