张爱玲是一名深受西方文学与文化影响，又长期生活在上海租界，并曾经在 香港求学的中国作家。她通过文学创作形成了作家个人独特的审美方式，而实现 这一审美方式的途径之一就是通过在文学作品中塑造异国形象。本文采用了文本 细读、文外研究与比较文学形象学理论相结合的研究方法，发现张爱玲通过创作， 塑造了三种主要的异国形象，即狂热型、憎恶型和意识形态型。三种异国形象之 间既相互关联又各具特色，并与“自我”形象进行对照，其对照方式是1，借“狂 热”、“憎恶”型的“他者”形象与“自我”形象互为反衬，从而揭示中西方文化 各自独特之“丑”的审美；2, “意识形态型”的“他者”形象，与“自我”形象 构成镜像关系，从而体现出中西方文学中共通的人性之“丑”的特质。张爱玲塑 造的这种异国形象不仅在作家本人的文学创作中发挥着重要作用，而且对中国现 代文学中异国形象谱系的构建有着重要意义。
As a Chinese writer who had been influenced by western culture and literature, and had experienced life in both Shanghai concession and Hong Kong, Eileen Chang had formed her unique aesthetic view through literary creation. One of the typical ways to express her aesthetic view is to create exotic images. Using the combined research methods of close reading, extratextual study and the theories of Imagology in Comparative Literature, this thesis discovers that Eileen Chang had created three kinds of exotic images in her literary works: exotic images created with “mania”， exotic images created with “hatred” and the ’’ideological” exotic images. These images are intertwined with each other and have their own characteristics. As the images of “other”，they share special relationship with the image of ‘‘self’，and such kind of relationship is formed by Eileen Chang in this way: the exotic images created with “mania” and “hatred” are in contrast to the image of “self ’ and reveal the unique aesthetic view of “ugliness” in Chinese and western cultures; the “ideological” exotic images serve as a mirror to the image of “self ’ and reflect the common ugliness of human nature in both Chinese and western literature. Eileen Change representation of complicated exotic images has unique significance on both her literary creation and the system of exotic images in modern Chinese literature.
Key Words: Eileen Chang; Exotic Images; “Self’ and “Other”； Aesthetics of “Ugliness”； Imagology
1.1. Literature Review
As a famous female writer who gained great popularity in Shanghai in 1940s and had profound influences on later generations, Eileen Chang and her literary works have captured the attention of various readers and critics in China and overseas. Although the study of Eileen Chang in mainland China had once become dormant since 1949 and had remained silent until the 1980s, scholars from Hong Kong, Taiwan and overseas have never ceased their study on Eileen Chang. After the 1980s, the studies of Eileen Chang in mainland China started to become bottom out. Researchers5 interests of Eileen Chang kept increasing, the research fields of her works expanded rapidly, and the research methods used to interpret her works also kept flourishing. In contemporary China, the number of Eileen Chang?s biography as well as the research monographs and papers involving Chang and her works keeps increasing day by day. However, compared with other studies on Eileen Chang, the research field of the exotic images in her works has gained fewer attentions from scholars, and still need further discussions.
Previous studies on the exotic images in Eileen Change literary works can be classified into three categories. (Studies of the first and second categories have little concern with the Imagology study in Comparative Literature and are not closely related to the study of this thesis. Therefore the author of this thesis won’t cite specific examples while introducing them.)
The former studies which belong to the first category don’t make an essential distinction between exotic images and domestic images. The analysis of exotic images is only a component of the researchers9 overall analysis on certain or general images of the characters, materials or cities in Change works, for example, the analysis of male or female images in Chang’s fictions, the study of the city images of Shanghai or Hong Kong in her works, and the research on character images in her fictions from
the aspect of colonialism, etc.
Although the studies of the second category made a distinction between domestic and foreign images, the researchers’ analyses of foreign images are still not the subjects of their researches but the approaches to demonstrate their research purposes. For instance, some scholars did researches on the relationship between Eileen Change fictions and the western culture and literature with the analysis of various exotic elements in her works, while some analyzed the influence of exotic elements on the characters in Chang5s works.
The researches of the third category has close relationship with this thesis. They studied the exotic images in Eileen Chang’s fictions and essays from the aspects of Comparative Literature and Imagology studies. Based on the materials available, foreign scholars haven^ been involved in this research field, and there are eight Chinese papers of this field that can be retrieved in CNKI and two of them are master’s theses.
Among these papers, two researchers focused on the exotic female images in Eileen Chang’s fictions. For example，Chen Shurui’s research mainly studies how Eileen Chang adopted the perspectives of different characters and integrated her reflections on foreign and domestic cultures to the revelation of the human weakness and survival truth of foreign women within their identity symbols. Shi Wanpeng and Liu Chuanxia analyzed modern Chinese women writers9 depiction of exotic women in their literary creation through the comparison of exotic women characters created by Chen Hengzhe, Bing Xin and Eileen Chang. With such analyses, they pointed out the transformation of women writer’s vision field from “western subjective” to “oriental subjective,,? and finally to Uinter-subjective,,? and elaborated the Chinese uImaginaire Social” of foreign cultures and foreign women in different historical periods and the gradual self-identification of female writers in their writing process reflected in such transformation.
In addition, several researchers made overall analyses on the exotic images in Change fictions. Some of them analyzed the ethnic sentiments and cultural position reflected in images of the foreign races. For example, in the paper uOn the strange images of foreign races in Eileen Chang’s fictions”，Ren Ruwen studied how Eileen Chang explored her own ethnic identity through the creation of characters from exotic racial groups，and made a combined analysis on the early works of Eileen Chang and her writings during her stay in America, in order to discuss her recognition of ethnic identity and the traditions in new literature as well as the significance of ethnic writing lasted in the diasporic writing of Chinese writers in 20th century. Some scholars analyzed the exotic images in Eileen Change fictions from the perspective of relationship between “self ’ and “other”. However, the emphases of their studies vary a lot and there are discrepancies among their opinions. For example, in the article uOn Foreign Images in Eileen Chang’s Fiction”，He Yuqing analyzed Chang’s “double perspectives”（“Hong Kong through the Shanghailanders’ eyes” and “Peking opera through foreign eyes”) which was used in her creation of exotic images, and illustrated that exotic images can serve not only as the representative of foreign cultures，but also as the code of the writer’s reflection on his or her domestic culture. Besides, Wei Lili held the belief that Eileen had described the exotic images with friendly attitude in her article “Describing ‘Other’，Expressing ‘Self: on the Foreign Figures in Eileen Chang’s Fictions”. Another researcher Wang Huikai, in her article uCrash and Embarrassment of Culture: Image of China and Images of Different Races in Eileen Chang’s Fictions’’，believed that Eileen Chang criticized China and presented a decayed and corrupt image of China from the perspective of western culture which is characterized by democracy and rationality, while displayed the ugly and hypocritical image of foreign countries through the narration of uothef, from the perspective of the conventional Chinese culture that characterized by ethics and morality.
In addition to these short journal articles, studies in this field also contain two masters’ theses. In the thesis “A Study on Western Images in Eileen Chang’s Fictions”，Pan Meifang introduced the images of foreigners and material details in Eileen Change fictions from aspects like appearance, gender, identity, diet, means of communication, advertisement and architecture. Then she discussed China’s Imaginaire Social of the western world as well as Eileen Chang’s personal experience
reflected in the creation of exotic images, and analyzed the image of ‘‘self ’ mirrored in the image of “other”. In the thesis “The Exotic Image in Eileen Chang’s Literary Works”，Zhang Juan combined the study methods of Imagology，the mutual vision of cultures, and aesthetics of reception. She revealed Eileen Chang’s “double perspectives^ and the possible influence Chang may received when she shaped the foreign images from two dimensions: personal imagination and the Imaginaire Social. Besides, she also discussed the classification, feature and cultural representation of the exotic images (mutual projection between domestic and exotic culture) in Change fictions from three aspects: images of colonial city, images of foreigners and images of social life. At last, she revealed the guiding role of ideology in the conflicts between local and exotic cultures and the universal value behind the convergence of “self’ and “other” with the analysis of Chang’s different attitudes in shaping these exotic images.
Compared with studies on Eileen Chang in other research fields, there are fewer studies on the exotic images in her literary works from the viewpoint of Imagology. As a result, there still remain questions that need further discussion and problems to be solved in the previous studies. For example, due to the word limit, some issues raised in theses journal articles still need further discussion. As for the two master5s theses, although Pan Meifang made elaborate descriptive analysis on the images of foreigners and foreign material details in Chang’s fictions and the creation background of such images，like China’s “Imaginaire Social” of the West and the author Chang’s personal experience, she didn’t make logical combination between the two parts. In the third part of her thesis, she didn’t give an analysis on the mirror-image relationship of “self ’ and “other” from the perspective of Imagology • In her thesis，Eileen Chang’s indication of the image of “self’ was revealed through Chinese characters9 different attitudes toward the western world, rather than reflected by Chang’s creation of exotic images. Moreover, she confounded the concepts of author, narrators and protagonists in the research process. Compared with Pan Meifang’s thesis，Zhang Juan’s master’s thesis is stricter in logic and has clearer consciousness in choosing research topics as well as more reasonable overall
discussions. However, city image, character image and various exotic elements in daily life are all involved in her thesis. The analysis of foreigners only plays a small part and her purpose of comparing the “self ’ images and the image of “other” is to discuss the ideological orientation of Eileen Chang in the process of writing, instead of conducting a systematic research on the ^self5 image reflected in the image of “others”.
All in all, in previous studies, there are elaborate descriptive analyses of foreign characters, exotic material details as well as exotic city images in Eileen Change fictions. Also, there are sufficient introductory analyses of Chinese “Imaginaire Social” of the western world since ancient times and Eileen Change personal experience which may influence her creation of exotic images. However, although the mirror-image relation between the image of “other” and the image of “self ’ in Change works has been referred to, it still needs further discussions. This thesis will be a study on the image of foreigners in Eileen Chang’s works. In order to avoid unnecessary details, the foreign characters will not be introduced from the aspects of specific performances, appearances, genders or identities, but be classified from the perspective of Imagology. The Chinese “Imaginaire Social” of the West and Eileen Chang’s personal experience, which were thoroughly introduced by former researchers, will neither be analyzed in detail. This thesis will focus on the contrasts and mirror-image relationship between “self’ and “other” reflected in Eileen Chang’s representation of exotic images and discuss her aesthetic view of “ugliness” revealed in such contrasts and mirror-image relationship.
1.2. Purpose and Organization of the Thesis
As a Chinese writer who had been influenced by western culture and literature, and had experienced life in both Shanghai concession and Hong Kong, Eileen Chang had created various kinds of exotic images of great academic value. However, up until now, researchers from home and abroad haven^ paid due attention to the study of this field. There still remains questions to be discussed. Using the combined research methods of close reading, extratextual study and the theories of Imagology in
Comparative Literature, This thesis will introduce three categories of exotic images in Eileen Chang’s literary works，discuss the purpose of Chang’s representation of different kinds of exotic images and find out the significance of her creation of exotic images. This thesis will mainly focus on Eileen Chang’s fictions and essays which were published in the 1940s, especially the following nine short fictions: Love in a Fallen City, Red Rose，White Rose，The Consecutive Circles, Youth, Aloeswood Incense: The First Brazier, Aloeswood Incense: The Second Brazier, The Jasmine Tea, Steamed Osmanthus Flower, Ah Xiao's Unhappy Autumn, and Genesis. Her literary works written before and afterwards will serve as the supplementary materials.
The first chapter summarizes the existing studies on Eileen Chang and the exotic images in her literary works in China and overseas, and gives a introduction to this thesis’ purpose and structure.
The second chapter will analyze the creation background and classification of the exotic images in Eileen Chang’s literary works. Eileen Chang’s formation of exotic images has been influenced by two primary factors: China’s complex Imaginaire Social of the exotic world and her life experience. At that time, the progressive idea of freedom and equality, the advanced science and technology and the exotic charm of the west were admired by the Chinese. However, since ancient times, China has always regarded people in the foreign land as the “barbarians”. Moreover，in the era of Eileen Chang, the westerners made colonial aggressions against China and left the Chinese people with the impression of ’’foreign devils’’. As a result，the China’s Imaginaire Social of the West at that time was very complex. The second factor is Eileen Change personal life experience. Influenced by western and Chinese culture and literature, she was familiar with classical Chinese literature as well as British novels. In her adolescence, she resisted her father’s ’’traditional Chinese’’ family， longing for the "western" life style of her aunt and her mother. However, during her stay in Hong Kong, she had also experienced the discrimination from western colonists and the survival predicaments of the colonized. Therefore, Eileen Chang had a deep understanding and complicated feelings of both her motherland and the Exotic
world. Under such influences, Eileen Chang had created three kinds of exotic images.
The images created with “mania” imply her romantic vision of western civilization, while the exotic images created with “hatred” reveal the dark side of westerners and western society. In addition, most of the exotic images in her works belong to the "ideological" type. While shaping these exotic images, Eileen Chang weakened the concept of “other” by projecting Chinese group values on the foreign people. These exotic images are just like the ordinary people around Chinese readers.
The third chapter will analyze the methods Eileen Chang used in her creation of different kinds of exotic images and illustrate the unique relationship between “self ’ and “other” revealed in her creation of Exotic images. Firstly, this chapter will analyze how Eileen Chang realized the contrast between uself9 (domestic images) and the exotic images created with “mania” and “hatred”，and discuss the unique aesthetic view of “ugliness” in Chinese and western literature reflected in such contrast. For example, how the contrast between “self ’ and the exotic images created with “hatred” shows the bondage of religion asceticism in the western society and westerner^ racial discrimination toward Chinese; how the contrast between “self ’ and exotic images created with “mania” reflects the alienation of human beings caused by the gloomy social environment in the old Chinese society where colonialism and feudalism coexisted. The second part of this chapter will analyze Eileen Chang’s design of the mirror-image relationship between uself9 and the ideological exotic images and her revelation of the common ugliness of human nature usually presented in both Chinese and western literature (such as selfishness, hypocrisy, unfaithfulness, etc.) Such ugliness is embodied not only in secular people, but also in the religious figures, and exists in both the civil stratum and the bureaucratic stratum.
The fourth chapter will illustrate the significance of such representation of exotic images on both Eileen Change literary creation and the system of exotic images in modern Chinese literature.
The final chapter will summarize the research questions mentioned above and discuss the significance and imperfections of the research.
2. Classification of the Exotic Images in Eileen Chang’s
As one of the significant phenomena in the old Chinese society where colonialism and feudalism coexisted, exotic images play a considerable part in Eileen Change literary works. These exotic images are not only numerous, but also diverse. They vary from individual image to group image (e.g. Mrs. Michelle and the group of westerners in Aloeswood Incense: The Second Brazier), from the European colonizer to the Southeast Asian colonized(e.g. Mr. Thomson and Yahya lumkin in The Consecutive Circles), and from pure foreigner to the mixed-blood (e.g. George in Aloeswood Incense: The First Brazier and Cynthia in Youth). Most of them belong to middle and upper class, but they still vary from citizen stratum to bureaucratic stratum.
''Literally speaking, Imagology deals with the research on images. However, in the scope of Comparative Literature, what Imagology studies are not all the things that can be viewed as 4images5, but the shaping and representation of exotic images in the national literature,,(Meng 2).These exotic images created by the Chinese writer Eileen Chang, because of their exotic attribute, can be analyzed from the aspect of Imagology in Comparative Literature. According to Jean Marc Moura, in the sense of literary Imagology, the concept of “image” has triple implications: “It is exotic; it is out of a nation’s culture and society (namely, it is out of the “Imaginaire Social”： a society’s collective cognition or description of an exotic nation); and it is created by the writer’s special feelings’’(Moura 25). Eileen Chang’s creation of exotic images were also influenced by Chinese complex “Imaginaire Social” of the western world and her intermingled love-hate feelings toward western people deriving from her unique growth environment of both western and Chinese cultural backgrounds. In the 20th century, the sophisticated technology, the progressive idea of freedom and equality and the exotic charm of the West were admired by the Chinese. However, since ancient times, China has always regarded people in the foreign lands as “barbarians”. Moreover, in the era of Eileen Chang, the westerners made several colonial aggressions against China and left the Chinese people with the impression of "foreign devils’’. All of these factors had resulted in the Chinese Complex “Imaginaire Social” of the West that might have influenced Chang’s literary creation. As for Eileen Change personal life experience, she was brought up with both western and Chinese cultural backgrounds. She was familiar with British novels as well as classical Chinese literature. In her adolescence, she resisted her fathers "traditional Chinese’’ family，longing for the ’’western’，life style of her aunt and her mother. However, during her stay in Hongkong, she had also experienced the discrimination from western colonists and the survival predicaments of the colonized. Therefore, Eileen Chang had developed complicated feelings of both China and the Western world. With these influences, the exotic images in Change works are also complex and multifaceted.
In addition, Chang had never been abroad before most of the exotic images were created in her fictions. Although she had lived in Shanghai concession and Hong Kong for many years, her unsociable character kept her away from associating with more foreigners than her foreign teachers and classmates in school and the foreign friends of her relatives. Thus, some of the exotic images in her fictions were created with the imagination based on the western books and movies which were available for her, while some were created by projecting Chinese group values on the foreign people. It is obvious that these exotic images are not the pure replica of foreign people, and are bound to have cross-cultural meanings. Analyzed from the perspective of Imagologie study in Comparative Literature, such images can be classified into three types: exotic images created with “mania”，exotic images created with “hatred” and the "ideological” exotic images.
2.1. Exotic Images Created with “Mania”
As is stated by Professor Daniel Henri Pageaux, a French scholar of Comparative Literature, different attitudes toward the exotic world can be summarized into three basic categories: mania, hatred and amicability. When writers or groups view the
exotic reality as superior to their native culture, they may regard the indigenous culture as inferior, thus promote the status of the exotic images with the negation and belittling of native image(Meng 175-176). With such attitude of umania,,? the description of the exotic image is more like an "illusion" than a fact, and more utopian than realistic.
Some of the exotic images in Eileen Chang’s fictions can be considered as images created with such attitude of “mania”. With the enthusiasm for western art and culture and the admiration of the advanced technology, free thought and delicate lifestyle of the western civilization, Eileen Chang had expressed her fancy for the western world in the description of exotic images through the viewpoint of the Chinese characters in her fictions. Such description firstly manifested as the generalized group images of foreigners. Chang had revealed the servile craziness and blind faith toward foreign things in Chinese social psychology. With foreigners always high-ranking, decent, and civilized and foreign things always modern and fashionable, the generalized group exotic images in some of Chang’s works are representatives of abundant material life, advanced culture and superior race. In her fiction Genesis, for instance, born into a once renowned but finally declined family, the heroine Jiezhu had to work as a shop assistant in a pharmacy (an experience that could not be regarded as decent for a lady at that time). However, for the purpose of maintaining her illusion of decency, she kept reminding her friends that the proprietor of the pharmacy is a foreign couple: uthe place where I work is owned by foreigners. I can help them translate things and practice English. If I kept staying at home, I might lose my mastery of English”(Chang，“Genesis” 172). It is quite odd that a job, regardless of its category, once related with foreigners, would be less shabby or humble. Likely, in The Consecutive Circles, when Mr. Mill, a married English man, molested the heroine Nixi, instead of feeling humiliated or being assaulted, she was even quite pleased because he was a foreign officer with high status in Hong Kong colony. In these cases, the exotic group image is depicted as an epitome of decency and power.
In addition to the group image existed in the impression of Chinese characters,
there are also typical individual exotic images that are depicted with the inclination of “mania”，for instance，the Russian girl Cynthia in and the mixed-race girl Yan Danzhu in The Jasmine Tea. The two girls, as the exotic images in Change fictions, are the carriers and embodiments of the romantic ideals of their Chinese counterparts and the representation of mystery, hope, vitality, modern and healthy lifestyle as well as distant beauty. While shaping this kind of images, Eileen Chang combined direct description of their appearance and the side description from the Chinese character’s perspective.
In the fiction Youth, the foreign girl Cynthia is just like an incarnation of the utopia in the Chinese protagonist Pan Ruliang^ imagination. When Pan first caught sight of Cynthia, what attracted him most was not what she dressed or how beautiful she was, but her unique “exotic” profile: the profile that he kept drawing since he was a child (though he had never seen it in the real world), that he was especially familiar with and could even drew with his eyes closed or only with his left hand; the profile that has no hair, no eyebrows, and just a simple line from forehead to chin, but can be recognized as exactly “exotic”. In addition to the “mania” for Cynthia’s “exotic” appearance, Cynthia’s defect was also been filtered in Pan’s self-deceiving daydream: uHe didn?t admire her untidiness, but tried to pretend not to see such behavior and chose to notice and savor the poetic part of her”(Chang，‘‘Youth’’ 9-10). He was even not willing to understand her for he was clear that uhis dream would break the minute he understood her”(9). As is stated by Eileen Chang，“At least, Cynthia belongs to a different world. Ruliang puts her with all that is clean and lovely, like the scholarship, the football match, the German bicycle, and the new literature,,(7). For Pan Ruliang, Cynthia is more like an idealized and delicate dream: ua dream of his ideal and desire’’(7). In other words, his enthusiasm for her is actually the “mania” for the remote exotic world that she represents.
The individual exotic images created with the attitude of “mania” also manifest
as Yan Danzhu, heroine of The Jasmine Tea. In Eileen Change description, the
mixed-race girl Yan Danzhu, growing up in a family of western life style, is a stylish
and charming new woman with cheerful, passionate and considerate personality as
well as numerous admirers. Portrayed in the fanatic impression of the Chinese protagonist Nie Chuanqing, Danzhu was like a paratrooper from the palaces of the moon, landing to save him from the oppressive and painful family life. Her fascinating exotic vigor and the predestined relationship between her father and Chuanqing^ deceased mother had released extremely powerful attraction to him that he even deified her in his love confession to her: “But to me, you’d be creator, father, mother, a new world, a new everything. You’d be past and future. You’d be God”(Chang, “The Jasmine Tea” 105). Obviously, such an intense and distorted feeling surpasses the simple love for a girl. It’s more like the “mania” for a remote and exotic dreamland: a utopia.
In the two fictions, the mania for exotic images depicted from the perspective of Pan Ruliang and Nie Chuanqing is actually the attitude of the author Eileen Chang herself. The two characters share almost the same family background with the old-fashioned Chinese family of Chang’s father. Moreover，the family pattern of a pedantic and violent father and a selfish stepmother is like an epitome of her father^ family where she spent her childhood and adolescence. According to Eileen Chang, the fiction Youth was her favorite. It is probably because the protagonist Pan Ruliang is the epitome of herself. To some extent, these two fictions are partly autobiographical. Chang had represented her youth by modeling the two Chinese characters and revealed the fanatical part of her subconsciousness toward the exotic civilization through their “mania” for the two exotic girls.
2.2. Exotic Images Created with “Hatred”
In the classification made by Professor Daniel Henri Pageaux, the attitude toward exotic images, contrary to “mania”，is “hatred”. With such an attitude, foreign reality is usually described as backward compared to local culture. In Chinese complex “Imaginaire Social” of foreigners at Chang’s time, the exotic world is not only the symbol of advanced science and technology, but also an embodiment of the colonists and invaders who encroached on Chinese territory, forced the corrupt and incompetent Qing government to sign humiliating treaties, and threw China into a
society where colonialism and feudalism coexisted. The villainy of foreign great powers had changed Chinese people’s admiration for them into a painful feeling intermingled with hatred, fear, humiliation, etc. Moreover, since ancient times, Chinese has always regarded alien lands as “Man and Yi”（ land of wildness)，and ’’regarded other nations as barbarians and irrational animalsM(Ricci 18). Such multifaceted “Imaginaire Social”，together with the discrimination from western colonists as well as living predicament of the colonized that Eileen Chang had experienced when she stayed in Hong Kong, had turned her “mania” for the exotic world into mixed love-hate feelings. Therefore, in her literary works, apart from the images created with the attitude of mania, there also exists exotic images which share abominable features.
Eileen Change attitude of hatred toward the exotic images first manifests as the satiric and comic-styled depiction of their appearance in her literary works. For example, in the fiction Red Rose, White Rose, the old foreign lady Mrs. Ashe, in Chang’s description, “was tall and stooped and wore an elaborate dress，a foreign-style print that sagged around her frame and make her look like an old beggar ... under the hat was a circle of gray hair, pressed flat like a wig, and her eyes looked like they were faked by pale blue porcelain,,(285). As for Mr. Greenberger, a Jewish character in Genesis, Mwas a quiet, black-browed little man with a mustache, who seemed like a villain in American movieM(174). Moreover, in The Consecutive Circles, the Indian mercer Yahya lumkin was described with an appearance neither fish nor fowl: uHe wore a sharp suit with a white veil over his head^ (268). The British officer Mr. Mill was also described with a clownish appearance: uThe top of his head is bare, but to know that, people has to turn around to the back of him, because his jaw is always raised too high,,(281). Eileen Chang also showed no compliment in the portrayal of Cynthia^ husband, a Russian cop in her fiction Youth: uHe was an impetuous, yellow-haired young man, though with an old-fashioned straight nose, he did not look promising’’( 14). In addition，these abominable foreigners also had “barbarian” behaviors, for example, in the fiction Steamed Osmanthus Flower, Ah Xiao's Unhappy Autumn, after the Chinese housemaid Ah
Xiao noticed that her foreign master Mr. Garter had eaten a raw egg, she shook her head with an obvious criticism: uhe was nothing but a savage,,(62). These descriptions above, such as wig, faked eyes, villain, embarrassing clothing, bald head, impetuous look and savage behavior were in conformity to the image of “foreign devils” in Chinese stereotype of foreigners and had contributed to Eileen Change shaping of the “abominable” group image of foreigners.
Apart from the clownish appearance and “barbarian” behaviors, the exotic images created with “hatred” also have unpleasant personalities. To be specific, those defects of personality, reflected in male characters, are frivolity, dissolute behavior, drink abuse, immorality, etc. In Aloeswood Incense: The First Brazier, Eileen Chang had expressed her “hatred” toward the frivolous foreign men not only with the comments from Madame Liang, a rich widow in Hong Kong who dealt with foreigners all year round, but also with her direct depiction of their rude behaviors. When Madame Liang discussed the guest list of her party with her maid, she criticized the flirtatious disposition of British officers and refused to invite them:
“Those British officers only come for the drinks they haven’t got any self-control,
and just get soused... that army lieutenant, he shouldn^ be let in again. He got drunk and chased Glance all over. No manners at all”(15). Similarly, in the final part of the fiction, when the protagonists Weilong and George spent the lunar New Year in Wanchai, they witnessed groups of drunken British sailors dallying with prostitutes and some of them even attempted to molest Weilong. "Along came a gang of sailors, drunk and throwing firecrackers in every direction. When they saw Weilong, they started to aim at her”(76). These British soldiers, described as despicable alcoholic and “drunken mudfish” by Eileen Chang, revealed the immoral behavior of indulgence in sensual pleasure among westerners in Hong Kong.
Chang not only molded male foreigners of abominable features, but also showed her attitude of hatred while shaping the exotic images of female, especially girls from the mission school. In Chang’s words, these female characters became abominable for their shameful “innocence” stemming from the deformed lady education they have received. For example, in Chang’s essay Fr麵，d血Sureika，“a reigning beauty
of a remote little town on the Malay Peninsula” was introduced in a rather satirical way. uLike most girls who have been educated in the convent, Sureika was almost shamefully naive. She chose to study medicine. Medical students have to dissect corpses, but do the corpses wear clothes? Sureika was concerned about this question and made inquiries. This became a standing joke around campus,,(45). It is ridiculous that what a medical student thought about before an autopsy was not the professional knowledge but her chastity, and what she worried about was not medical problems but whether the corpses were naked. This case reveals the abnormal “naivete” of girls who had received strict ascetic education in the mission school. Moreover, in Aloeswood Incense: The Second Brazier, the two British sisters Millicent and Susie, brought up by Mrs. Michelle with the deformed lady education and the deliberate elimination of sex education, are typical representatives of the shameful, even dreadful “innocence” that Chang intended to criticize. Due to such “innocence”，they misinterpreted their husbands* normal behavior as attacks and amplified the social impact of the situation, which made them bear the notorious reputation and eventually hounded them to death.
2.3. The "Ideological” Exotic Images
In Jean Marc Moura’s theory, “The exotic image，reshaped in accordance with the model and discourse of the domestic society, is ideological; while the exotic image, created by the centrifugal discourse which conforms to a writer’s unique view of diversity, is utopian”. “The role of ideological image is to integrate social groups (or the culture and society). On the contrary, the utopian description serves to subvert the existing group value,,(Moura 35-36). Despite those images of fanatic and abominable features，most of the exotic images in Chang’s works belong to the ideological type.
Compared with other Chinese writers who were brought up in the background of rural and indigenous culture, Eileen Chang had grown up in Shanghai, the city known as "Paris of the eastM where Chinese and foreign cultures coexisted. With the support of her mother, she had received western-style education in St. Mary’s Hall (a mission
school), and had studied in University of Hong Kong, a university that based on the British academic system, where she acquainted with many foreign teachers and students and gained a good mastery of English. Moreover, she had developed strong interests of western culture and literature: she had an extensive reading of foreign writers like Bernard Shaw, Thomas Henry Huxley, D. H. Lawrence and William Somerset Maugham, and were influenced by the literary theory of Carl Gustav Jung and Sigmund Freud. According to her brother, Chang also had strong interests in western movies. She subscribed to a series of English-language publications about films, such as Movie star and Screen play and had almost seen all the films of famous American actors that were released in Shanghai in the 1930s and 1940s(Zhang Zijing and Ji Ji 57-58). As a result, Chang had already become accustomed to the foreigners and foreign cultural images around. Therefore, she had lost the original curiosity toward exotic elements. In her portrayal of foreign and domestic images, she focused more on their similarities rather than their differences. Therefore, while shaping these exotic images，Eileen Chang weakened the concept of “other” by projecting Chinese group values on the foreign people. What she intended to depict was not the image of “other”(foreigners)，but the image of “self’（Chinese).
Most of the exotic images in Change fictions share ideological features. The
foreigners, in her description, lifted their vile of mystery, behaved just like ordinary
Chinese did and shared similar personalities as well as imperfections with Chinese. In
the fiction Steamed Osmanthus Flower, Ah Xiao^s Unhappy Autumn, Ah Xiao’s
foreign master Garter^ extremely careful calculation and strict budgeting was just
like that of the Chinese petty bourgeois in Shanghai. In Aloeswood Incense: The
Second Brazier, when the heroine Susie escaped from her husband Rogers home in
their wedding night, the foreign students she met, who gathered together to stir up the
trouble and spoke ill of their professor Roger, are just like the Chinese “onlookers”
who are inclined to derive pleasure from others* misfortune. The academic dean
Morris，foe of Roger, who took revenge on him by intensifying the problem is similar
to the selfish and calculating colleagues that are common in Chinese workplaces.
These exotic images are neither peculiar nor mysterious. They are just like all kinds of
people around the Chinese readers. Even Cynthia, the heroine of Youth, a character modeled by Eileen Chang in an utopian way, were also in the anxiety for the lack of money and ideal marriage partner like ordinary Chinese girls did, and finally lost her exotic attraction after her disillusionary marriage.
Chang’s portrayal of the ’’ideological” exotic images is most obvious in her fiction The Consecutive Circles. In a typical case, Fu Lei, a Chinese translator and literary critic, had criticized the fiction The Consecutive Circles with the comments that uthe Spanish nuns? behavior is similar to the behaviors of Chinese nuns and old women. I am not clear about what the laws of women?s convents were in Hong Kong fifty years ago, or what the author?s historical foundation was, but what she wrote was closer to the scandalous medieval history of Europe than the reality of the time background in her novel... At the very least, the language in A Dream in Red Mansions and The Golden Lotus should not be directly inserted into the utterance of westerners or Cantonese”(Fu 66). In a sense, Fu Lei’s criticism proved the “ideological” feature of those exotic figures. In Chang’s description, these exotic images (created with the violation of true reality in Change time): the shrewd Indian merchant, the snobbish European nuns who kept gossiping and sowing discords in the neighborhood, together with the flirtatious British officers making their entry on the stage with the language in Chinese classical novels, constitute a genre painting that goes beyond national boundaries. Likely, in Professor Tang Wenbiao^ comments of the same fiction, he also illustrates that uEileen Chang seemed to know little about the psychology of foreign men, let alone how they treat Chinese women who are in the relationship of illicit cohabitation with them. In all of her novels, the mentalities of all the races appeared are the same: white people are just like Indians, and Indians are the same as Chinese. It seems to make no difference if the Indian name Yahya lumkin in her fiction is replaced by any Chinese name,,(Tang 297). Professor Tang put it more bluntly that the distinction between natives and foreigners is not obvious in Chang5s works. Through these exotic images, Chang had revealed the group value of Chinese, the public sentiments in China, and the common limits of human nature.
3. Methods to Realize Eileen Changes Creation of Exotic
uImagology concerns itself with both images in the literary works and the representation of ‘Other’ as a binary term opposite to ‘Self’’(Meng 3). “Self’ and “other”，“native” and “foreign” are the basic binary opposition in Imagology studies. Researchers of Imagology believe that “self ’ and “other” as well as “native” and “foreign” contain the inter-subjective relationship, which means they are opposite and antithetic but complementary to each other: the former becomes significant with the participation of the latter (Meng 5). In Daniel Henri Pageaux’s opinion，“While the ‘self is looking at the ‘other’，the image of “other” will simultaneously convey a certain image of6self, whether 4self is an observer, a speaker, or a writer’’(Pageaux 157). Just like it is illustrated by Professor Meng Hua and Daniel Henri Pageaux, uself9 (images of Chinese) and “other”（exotic images), as opposite and complementary elements，set off each other in Eileen Chang’s literary works. In her creation of these different kinds of exotic images, Chang formed an intertwined relationship between “self’ and “other”，and such relationship is formed by such methods: the exotic images created with “mania” and “hatred” are created in contrast to the image of ‘‘self’； while the “ideological” exotic images serve as a mirror to the image of “self’. Such contrast and mirror-image relationship are also associated with Eileen Chang’s aesthetic view of ugliness.
In French writer Victor Hugo’s opinion，“Ugliness stands next to beauty, like deformity is next to grace, vulgarity is hidden behind sublime, good and evil coexist, darkness is mingled with light”(Hugo 30). As a concept in contrast to ‘‘beauty’’， “ugliness” refers to unpleasant and discordant things that cannot serve its purpose well (for example, discordant note and picture, anger, disease, death, etc.)(Wang 25). When ugliness is emphasized in literary creation, it usually has unique aesthetic significances. Writers usually try to evoke people’s pursuit of “beauty” by exposing and revealing the evil of “ugliness”，or sublimate the “ugliness” of nature and humanity in artistic works, in order to endow the artistic image of ugliness with aesthetic values. The concept of “ugliness” plays an important role in the writer Eileen Change literary creation. Chang had stated in her essay Writing of One Own: uNor do I approve of the aesthetes who advocate beauty above all else. I think that their problem lies not in their beauty but in their failure to provide the figure of beauty with a ground” (19). Unlike writers of aestheticism, Chang regarded “ugliness” as the entry point of her literary creation. In her works, the portrayal of ugliness is evident in both material images and human figures: the bird imprisoned in the screen in Jasmine Tea, the indifference of parents and the adolescent girPs pathetic death in Withered flower, the vicious mother with psychopathic personality in The Golden Cangue, the twisted relationship between father and daughter in Heart Sutra, as well as the representative pale moonlight and dismal tune of Huqin in many of her works draw the outline of a panorama of ugliness together.
These “ugly” images of human figures manifest as images of male and female, images of parent and offspring, and images of native (‘‘self’）and foreigner (“other”). In the first binary opposition, Chang had modeled selfish parents and their psychologically morbid offspring. In the second binary opposition, Chang had described women oppressed by the canon of the decayed old society and men of vulgar and irresponsible disposition. In the third binary opposition, the exotic images (created with “mania” and “hatred”)，depicted in contrast to ‘‘self’，provide Chang’s works with a profound insight into the unique ugliness of group and individual human beings in China and the exotic world. Besides, the common ugliness of human nature, shared by “self’ and “other”，is revealed in Chang’s formation of the “ideological” exotic images which serve as a mirror to the image of uself In such cases, the mutual contrast between the exotic and domestic images makes their unique ugliness more prominent, while the mirror-image relationship between “self ’ and “other” ensures a clearer revelation of the common ugliness of human nature in Chinese and western literature.
3.1. The Contrasts Between “Self9’ and “Other”
3.1.1. The Contrast between Exotic Images Created with “Hatred” and the Image of “Self5
Eileen Change creation of exotic images is firstly realized by setting contrasts between uself9 and the image of uother,,? and reflecting the unique aesthetic views of “ugliness” in both Chinese and western culture with such contrasts in her literary works. Through the contrast between exotic images created with “hatred” and the image of “self’，Chang had underlined the feature of “other” with the revelation of their unique “ugliness”： westerner’s racial discrimination and the bondage of religion asceticism which is commonly discussed in western literature.
22.214.171.124. Exotic Images with Racial Discrimination
Due to the comparison between westerners’ advanced material civilization, strong economic and military strengths and their eastern counterparts9 weaknesses and backwardness as well as westerner’s hatred toward the yellow race caused by the “Yellow Peril” fallacy which had become widespread since the 19th century in Europe and the core concept of which was the exaggeration of threats from the yellow race to the white race, the Europeans had developed deeply-rooted racial discrimination toward the Asians. Besides, the Europeans also acted as the colonial invaders who had turned most of the Asian countries into their colonies or semi-colonies. As colonists, they didn^ give due respects to races under their colonial control. Instead of helping the colonized become more civilized, these colonial aggression contributed to the racial discrimination of the colonizer. With most of the stories in Eileen Change works taking place in Shanghai and Hong Kong where various foreign forces gathered, the issue of “racial discrimination” is inevitable in Chang’s creation of exotic images， especially those created with “hatred”. While shaping this kind of exotic images, Chang had formed the contrast between the image of “other”(performer of “racial
discrimination”）and the image of‘‘self’(victim of‘‘racial discrimination”).
This kind of contrast between “self ’ and “other” is firstly realized through Eileen Chang’s description of the exotic group images from the perspective of “self’(Chinese characters that suffered from discrimination.) For example，in the fiction Aloeswood Incense: The First Brazier, Chang had formed the contrast between the racial discrimination from “other” and the predicaments of “self ’ caused by the discrimination with conversations between the Chinese heroine Ge Weilong and other characters. Weilong had once discussed the possibility of finding a suitable marriage partner in the social occasions in Hong Kong with other female characters: uOr else they are British military men，in which case，if they’re lieutenants or above，they are reluctant to be involved with someone from the yellow race. Thafs how it is in Hong Kong’’(35). ‘‘Have you seen any whites here who aren’t deeply influenced by race concepts? Even if some of them is willing to marry one of us, there9 d be too much social pressure against it. Anyone who marries an Oriental loses his career. In this day and age, who would be that romantic?,,(45) In these conversations, Chang had revealed the “ugliness” of westerners with the contrast between the discrimination toward the yellow race stemming from westerner^ conceit of superior breeding and the difficulty in love and marriage the Chinese girls faced due to their inferior social position caused by the racial discrimination.
This kind of contrast between “self ’ and “other” is also realized through Eileen’s depiction of characters within whom exotic and domestic attributes collides and fuses. In the fiction Red Rose, White Rose, Chang had depicted a British mother Mrs. Ashe and her half-blood daughter Miss Ashe. In Change description, Mrs. Ashe was British, but she married a Eurasian, uwhich made her self-conscious as British as British can be”(285). In Mrs. Ashe’s words，“Going to England was 6going home’， even though her husband’s family had lived in China for three generations, and she herself had no living relatives in England,,(285). Mrs. Ashe kept stressing her British identity, as though it was a way to separate herself from China, and from the ''inferior race” that her husband belonged to. Her daughter Miss Ashe always kept uan
exhausted gaze” due to her “entirely undefined status” as a mixed-blood girl.
Similarly, in this fiction, the family of Rose (the protagonist Tong Zhenbao5s girlfriend), was also bonded by the marriage between a British father and a Cantonese mother. Rose^ father, an English businessman who had lived in southern China for many years, married a Cantonese girl and brought her home to Edinburgh. Due to the racial difference，Rose’s mother “had to stay in the house still”，and “she was practically invisible and never took part in social events,,(260). As a mix-blood, uRose attended an English school, and because she wasn’t completely English, she acted more English than the English themselves,,(260). Like Mrs. Ashe, Rose had to highlight her British features to erase the trace of “inferior race” that she was bom with. These characters, becoming mixtures of “self ’ and “other” by marriage or consanguinity, are also the embodiments of the contrast between “self ’ and “other” with Chang’s deliberate emphasis on their “superior” exotic identity and denial or elimination of their “inferior” Chinese attributes.
Moreover, Eileen Chang also formed the contrast between “self9 and “other”
through the description of Chinese characters9 enthusiasm for the exotic things and
self-deprecation of domestic cultures triggered by the “inferiority complex” of “self ’
resulted from westerners9 discrimination. In Change fiction Steamed Osmanthus
Flower, Ah Xiao Unhappy Autumn, the Chinese house maid Ah Xiao, as a member
always answered the phone in “sharp self-important English” although she “could
only pronounce ‘hello’ with any degree of accuracy”，due to her fancy for the
“superiority” contained in foreign language: “the world of foreign language was
always happy, well-to-do, founded on sand,,(67). When she answered the phone call
from her husband，“she gathered that the caller must be Chinese’’，so she “adopted the
tone of an aggressive, hot-tempered western woman, repeating fierily: 6hello,,,(86).
Her husband, on the contrary, after a long silence, just “responded with a
tentative,,(86). According to the comments on colonialism made by Ye Weilian, a
prominent scholar of Comparative Literature, uThe strength represented by the
English language not only provided its users with the advantage of survival in the
society of colony，but also led to the aborigine’s inferiority toward their native
language and culture’’(89). Ah Xiao’s behavior of “clothing a fox-like form with the
borrowed majesty of the tiger,5(89) indicates her worship of the exotic world and her sense of superiority over people of her own race driven by her use of foreign language. By contrast, the self-abased image of Chinese under the discrimination from westerners is clearly presented in the timid response of her husband. The contrasts between Ah Xiao’s different attitudes toward English and her mother tongue and between her arrogance derived from her use of English and the timid response of her Chinese husband reflect the deep influence of westerner’s racial discrimination on Chinese society.
126.96.36.199. Exotic Images with the Bondage of Religion Asceticism
Asceticism, originated from the Greek, uis a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals. Ascetics may withdraw from the world for their practices or continue to be part of their society, but typically adopt a frugal lifestyle, characterized by the renunciation of material possessions and physical pleasures, and time spent fasting while concentrating on the practice of religion or reflection upon spiritual matters”(Finn 94-97). According to ascetic thoughts in Christianity, ''virtuous living is not possible when an individual is craving bodily pleasures with desire and passion”(Finn 97)，therefore，sensual desire, especially sexual desire is strictly prohibited. With the growth of asceticism in Christianity, sexual abstinence had become a essential feature of convents, churches, and western families with ascetic family education. In Eileen Chang’s literary creation of exotic images with “hatred”，she laid some stress on the “shameful innocence” of female foreigners stemming from the lack of sex education and deformed lady education influenced by the bondage of religion asceticism; and formed the contrast between ‘‘self9 and ‘‘other’’ with the design of setting the ‘‘shameful innocent’’ foreign girls as the characters of a fiction and a calm and reasonable Chinese as the narrator of the fiction.
Eileen Change use of contrast between the exotic images with the bondage of religion asceticism and the image of self is most obvious in her fiction Aloeswood
Incense: The Second Brazier. In this fiction, Chang made specific use of the first-person narration and elaborately designed the beginning part of the story. The fiction started with a conversation between the Chinese narrator 'T' and an Irish girl Clementine. “My sister gave me some sex education yesterday’’(54)，when Clementine said jokingly, turning over the books, pretending not to mind, and added that UI was really scared. Whafs your opinion? With such knowledge, one cannot fall in love at all. All the beautiful illusions are ruined! The reality is so filthy,,(54)? the Chinese narrator “I” just answered indifferently, “I’m surprised you knew it so late,,(54), and emphasized that uMost Chinese girls know it in a rather young age, so it is of no mystery. Our novels are more straightforward than yours, and we have more opportunities to read such kind of books,,(54). Compared with the calm and indifferent attitude of “I”，the foreign girl’s ignorance and biased belief of “sex” seems ironic and incredible. Through this comparison, Eileen Chang subverted the enlightened and open-minded stereotype of foreigners in the impression of Chinese, and revealed the conservative and deformed lady education in the western world. As a consequence, the “shameful innocence” of “other” is underlined through the contrast between‘‘self’and4‘other”.
Besides, in the fiction, the tragic story resulted from the “shameful innocence” of the exotic heroines Millicent and Susie is also narrated in the omniscient perspective of the Chinese narrator “I”，thus，the “ugliness” of “other”，originated from the bondage of religion asceticism, is detected through the eye of ‘‘self ’ and brought to light with the comments of “self’. The “shameful innocence” of the exotic sisters and the calmness and awareness of Chinese narrator also forms a kind of contrast. The tragedy happened between Roger, a foreign college professor in Hong Kong, and the Michelles. In order to keep her daughters around, Mrs. Michell selfishly raised them with extremely strict and ascetic lady education by deliberately keeping them away from almost everything related to sexuality. Even the newspapers they read should be checked by her. As a result, when the two daughters Millicent and Susie got married, their “shameful innocence” led to serious misunderstandings and irretrievable tragedies. Susie was frightened by her husband Roger’s “bestial” behavior and
escaped from their home in a panic, thus intensified the rumor of Roger. With almost all of his colleagues and British families above the middle class in Hong Kong being aware of his scandal, he was surrounded by endless gossip of “white man’s due reputation in the colonies,,(86) and was confronted with unemployment caused by coercion of the society. When he chose to find a job in other Chinese cities, his friend Buck warned him: unot to go to Shanghai, where most of the universities are sponsored by churches... I mean, you know their habitual prejudice. As for places like
Beijing, the atmosphere of church is also quite strong in the university ”(79).
With his life under the infamy of erotomania and the survival predicament caused by the atmosphere of religion asceticism in the society, Roger finally committed suicide. Likely, the same tragedy happened in the marriage between Millicent and her husband Frank. Millicent, with a lack of sexual knowledge, also regarded her husband Frank5 s normal behavior as worse than a beast, and got divorced with him. Frank, trapped in the same helpless impasse, took his own life in despair. It was the “shameful innocence” of the two heroines that led to the tragic destiny of their husbands. Then it was the atmosphere of religion asceticism in the British society that finally hounded Roger and Frank to death. Actually, the tragedy in this fiction goes beyond the tragedy of male characters. Millicent and Susie were also victims of their "shameful innocence,,? for they could never live a normal and healthy life or enjoy the happiness of love and marriage like normal girls did. In this fiction, Eileen Chang had disclosed the “dreadful” influence of western asceticism through the contrast between the Chinese narrator and the exotic characters.
3.1.2. The Contrast between Exotic Images Created with “Mania” and the Image of “Self5
The image of ’’other”，created by writers with their domestic cultural position and their own feeling and understanding of foreign culture, usually serves as the “reflection” of the image of “self’. The unique feature of‘‘self’ and “other” will both become more prominent through the contrast between them. Eileen Chang had formed the contrasts between exotic images created with “mania” and the image of “self ’ with both the contrast between images of the same gender and the contrast between images of opposite sexes. With such contrasts, Chang had revealed the unique “ugliness” of Chinese caused by the gloomy social environment in the old Chinese society where colonialism and feudalism coexisted Such ugliness of “self ’ not only involves the repressed and morbid physical and mental state of both male and female individuals, but also includes the distorted affection between family members in Chinese traditional feudal extended families.
188.8.131.52. The Contrast Between the Same Gender
The contrast between the same gender firstly exists in the group image of foreign men and the Chinese male characters in Eileen Change works. The foreign men in Chang’s description, although had their own “ugly” features, were at least robust in build and vigorous in spirit. George in Aloeswood Incense: The First Brazier, was a utall and well built,,(41) good-looking guy who made the Chinese character Lu Zhaolin look rough and doltish. Garter in Steamed Osmanthus Flower, Ah Xiao Unhappy Autumn, “still passed for a handsome man.” “There was something extremely artful about his grey eyes, and he carried himself with aplomb,,(63). Yahya and Thomson in The Consecutive Circles, were also handsome figures with strong, well-shaped physiques as well as dashing appearances. In addition to physical health, these male exotic images also shared positive and healthy attitudes toward life. Roger in Aloeswood Incense: The Second Brazier, was a professor who adopted responsible and conscientious attitude toward his work. Even Yahiya, as a merchant of colored race, started up his business from scratch and finally become a successful mercer with his diligence.
On the contrary, most of the Chinese male characters in Chang5s works, were either physically disabled or spiritually handicapped under the oppression from both the Chinese feudal society and the colonization of “other”. In Chang’s fiction J/ze Golden Cangue, the heroine Cao Qiqiao^ husband, one of the survivals of the bygone
feudal age, was a disabled man who could only spend his life in bed. Qiqiao’s son Changbai, distorted by her abnormal maternal love, was ua slight pale young man, slightly hunched” and ‘‘often smiling vacantly”(214). As for the personality of these Chinese male characters, there exists a common failing: the lack of masculinity. In Change works, the Chinese men were described as weak and useless cowards with childlike or girlish features. For instance, Mr. Zheng, the heroine^ father in Withered yfo肩r，looked like ‘‘a child’s body soaked in the wine jar’’( 17) in Chang’s depiction. In the fiction Traces of Love, the Chinese protagonist Mi Jingyao was Ujust like a baby except for the pair of glasses he was wearing”(l51) and looked like a baby wrapped in a bag when he was wearing a suit. The protagonist of The Jasmine Tea: Nie Chuanqing, a young man always in the mood of melancholy, uhad a feminine kind of beauty,,(79) with skinny neck, thin shoulders as well as faint eyebrows, and would burst out crying in class when he was criticized by the professor. Set off by the vigorous image of “other”，the male image of “self’，as the epitome of the old China under the oppression of feudalism and imperialism, was vulnerable, effeminate, and even handicapped.
Similarly, the “ugliness” of Chinese female image is also revealed by Eileen Chang through the contrast between ‘‘self ’ and “other”. The overall image of exotic women created by Chang with “mania” was bold，active，passionate for love and full of vigor compared with its Chinese counterpart, which was under the oppression of patriarchy society guided by the ethical code of uthe three obediences and the four virtues^ in Chinese feudal tradition. The images of foreign and Chinese women were described by Chang with the classical contrast between “white rose” and “red rose”： one is introverted while the other is extroverted. Most typically, in her fiction Red Rose, White Rose, Chang consciously modeled a set of contrast between ured rose^: the two exotic lovers of the male protagonist Zhenbao (the British girl Rose as well as the Singaporean Wang Jiaorui), and “white rose”： Zhenbao’s Chinese wife Meng Yanli. In the fiction, the exotic image of “red rose” was girls with the passion for love and life and the courage to express their feelings freely. Faced with the departure of Zhenbao, his girlfriend Rose exhausted her passion whole-heartedly to keep him and
her vanishing love: uRose clung to his neck, this way then that, trying to pull ever closer, wishing she could fuse her body with his, press herself into it”(261). Although Zhenbao rejected her with rationality, she was still a girl who pursued love bravely. Zhenbao^ another lover Wang Jiaorui, a Singaporean who had received her education in Britain, is more of a representative for women of modern consciousness. When she found that she had lost her heart to Zhenbao, with no hesitation, she freed herself from the bondage of loveless marriage which provided her with financial support, and left Zhenbao directly “without looking at him once’’(293) after she realized his cowardice and selfishness. Though experienced the betrayal of love, she was still positive in her second marriage. When Zhenbao came across her in the tramcar many years later, it was him, not her, that couldn’t help crying in jealousy. She was calm and still firm about love and life: uLove is good. Even though I have suffered, I still want to love. I have to forge ahead somehow,,(299).
Compared with the enthusiastic and vigorous “red rose”，in Eileen Chang’s
description, the image of “white rose”： Zhenbao’s Chinese wife Meng Yanli，was a
dull, boring, apathetic, spiritless and pale woman with a lack of individuality and
independent consciousness under the pressure of ethical codes in Chinese feudal and
patriarchal social atmosphere. In Chang’s words，Yanli was “a vague，enveloping
whiteness” which seemed like ‘‘a portable hospital screen’’(293). With thin and frail
physique, she was dull in both appearance and attitude toward life; ueven 'the best
sort of indoor exercise’ had no appeal for her’’(295). Her life was lifeless as a pool of
stagnant water. Moreover, instead of fighting for her own love and happiness, she
always yielded to the “predestined” fate as her husband’s dependency. Yanli married
Zhenbao for nothing but uhe was assigned to be her man among so many others,,(296).
Her husband was her god and she was always saying things like uwait and ask
Zhengbao about it’’(296). In her family life, she had little self-esteem because of the
consecutive humiliation from her husband and it seemed like she could never make a
decision on her own. In order to highlight her Uugliness,,? Eileen Chang chose to
depict the embarrassing scene of constipated Yanli in the bathroom. uShe was bent
over, about to stand up... her long body wavered over them like a white
silkworm”(307). In her husband’s eyes，the scene generated nothing sympathetic but a
kind of “household filth, like a matted wad of hair on a rainy day damp and
giving off a stagnant, stifling, human scent’’(3 07). Eventually，even this obedient “white rose” got distorted in depression. Yanli committed adultery with an ugly tailor. Through the contrast between the positive image of exotic women and the passive image of domestic women, Chang had revealed the tragic destiny of Chinese traditional female as well as the alienation of human nature under the imprisonment of Chinese feudal ideology.
184.108.40.206. The Contrast Between Opposite Sexes
In addition to the contrast between the same gender, in Eileen Chang5s works, the contrast between “self ’ and “other” within one fiction usually manifests as the contrast between opposite sexes. When the contrast is between a foreign man and a Chinese women, there are always differences between strong and weak, superior and inferior, civilized and unenlightened. Through such contrast, the sufferings and survival predicament of the colonized is set off by the privilege of foreigners. When the contrast is between an exotic woman and a Chinese man, there is usually difference between the gloomy social environment around the Chinese protagonists and the ideal exotic utopia that is represented by the foreign characters, for instance, the comparison between Pan Ruliang and Cynthia and the contrast between Nie Chuanqing and Yan Danzhu. Through such contrasts, Eileen Chang had disclosed the “ugliness” in Chinese traditional feudal extended families. In Chang’s fictions, these old-style extended families, which were supposed to be happy, healthy and prosperous, were deserts of love and emotion. Vulgar family members, indifferent family relation as well as ghostly family environment pervaded with the atmosphere of feudal corruption and the smell of opium led to nothing but biting coldness.
In the fiction To⑽/z, Eileen Chang formed a contrast between the exotic “utopia” represented by the foreign girl Cynthia (introduced in the second chapter) and the Chinese family of the protagonist Pan Ruliang. Set off by the “clean and lovely”
exotic utopia that the Russian girl Cynthia represented for, the Chinese family of the Ruliang was vulgar, dated and disappointing with his father "always pouring warm wine filthily from a tin pot into a cup with broken handle,,(2), his mother being an uneducated poor woman who uhad sacrificed the happiness of her life under the oppression of old moral codes,,(2) and could only express her love for him by forcing him to eat things, his two elder sisters not beautiful but restless and his younger brothers and sisters dirty, lazy and disobedient. Contrary to his “mania” for Cynthia, Ruliang always looked at these family members coldly like a solitary bystander with excessive disdain and indifference. Likewise, in the fiction The Jasmine Tea, Eileen Chang also formed a contrast between the exotic “utopia” represented by the mixed-blood girl Yan Danzhu and the Chinese family of the protagonist Nie Chuanqing. Compared with the loving family which brought ''confidence and fellow feelings: active, vigorous, brave,,(95) to the mixed-blood girl Danzhu, the Chinese protagonist Nie Chuanqing’s family was a loveless and lifeless desert where darkness, coldness, the smell of greasy hair and opium fumes prevailed, as well as a prison that bounded the life of Chuanqing^ mother and turned Chuanqing into a utimid, gloomy and idiotic boy’’(81). In Chuanqing’s ghostly Chinese family，all the flowers and trees had wilted, died, or been cut down; the tennis court became a place that full of laundry hung out to dry and opium were cooked when the weather was warm; uthe hall way was heavy with darkness,,(84); the irritable father in grease-spotted vest and the vitriolic stepmother reclined on the opium couch, prepared to find fault with their son. Molded in contrast to the vigorous and brave mixed-blood girl Danzhu, Chuanqing^ mother died hopelessly in a loveless and repressive environment. In the metaphor used by Eileen Chang, she was even not a bird locked in the cage, for a bird imprisoned in the cage could still fly away when the cage was unlocked. uShe was a bird embroidered onto a screen. The years passed; the bird’s feathers darkened, mildewed, and were eaten by moths, but the bird stayed on the screen even in death,,(92). As another bird added to the screen, Chuanqing was more pathetic, for it was (Biluo) his mother that chose to gave herself up to the feudal arranged marriage, but born into such a family, he had never had a free choice. uNo matter how much
he’s beaten, he can’t fly away. Twenty years with his father has crippled his spirit. Even if he did receive his freedom, escape was impossible,,(92). Described in contrast to the exotic “utopia” represented by the exotic girls, the old-style Chinese feudal families were places where the repression of patriarchy and feudal ethic codes existed and affection between family members was absent.
3.2. The Mirror-image Relationship Between uSelP and the Ideological Exotic Images
Eileen Chang’s creation of exotic images is also realized by forming the mirror-image relationship between “self’ and “other”. As is stated in the former chapters, most of the exotic images in Eileen Chang’s works belong to the "ideological" type. While shaping these images, Chang weakened the concept of “other” by projecting Chinese group values on the foreign characters，thus created a mirror-image relationship between “self’ and “other”： what she intended to depict with this method was not merely the image of “other”，but the “mirror image” of uself?. Considered from a more profound perspective, what she intended to reveal through such literary creation was not the nature of foreigners or that of any particular races or ethnic groups, but the human nature as a whole. Therefore, the common “ugliness” in human nature in both Chinese and western literature was clearly disclosed in this mirror-image relationship, which exists not only in secular people, but also in the religious figures that are assumed to be detached from the secular world, and exists not only in the civil stratum, but also in the bureaucratic stratum.
3.2.1. The Religious Figures
In Eileen Change literary works, the Christian nuns in church or mission school, as the representative of the exotic religious figures, had shown up for many times. These European nuns, dealing with the religious affairs which seemed to be lofty and philanthropic all day long, was depicted by Chang as a mirror that reflected the vulgar image of Chinese religious figures and lower-class women of various liberal
professions in old China. For example, Chang had described one of her miserable dreams in the essay The Writer Su Qing in My Eyes. In that dream, she, as a poor student, was treated harshly by the Catholic nuns who was the administer of the dormitory. Daring not to wake those snobbish and money-oriented nuns up, she had to spend the cold rainy night in the dark doorway and could finally enter the dormitory when the nuns opened the door for the rich student. On seeing her, the dorm master just greeted her indifferently with a slight nod. Eileen Chang confessed in this essay that once she remembered this dream or told others about this dream, she always couldn’t help crying(241). Dreams can often reflect the reality. Maybe this dream reminded Chang of the former days when she was usually discriminated or given cold shoulders by the snobbish dorm masters. This ironic image of exotic nuns, acting just like some of the money-oriented Chinese religious figures, was depicted by Chang as a mirror that reflected the similar “ugly” image of the snobs in Chinese society, and disclosed the selfish and snobbish “ugliness” of the human nature commonly represented in both Chinese and western literature..
In the fiction The Consecutive Circles, Eileen Chang had depicted an ugly and ludicrous group image of exotic nuns in the Churches of Hong Kong. These European nuns, gossiping around with the language in Chinese classical novels and accumulating wealth in the name of religious activities, were similar to the annoying talebearers in the neighborhood of Chinese readers and acted as a mirror that reflected the hypocritical Chinese monks and nuns who were greedy for money. Taking Portuguese nun Melanie for an example, she developed friendly relationship with the heroine Nixi to enjoy the discount in her first lover Yahya^ silk shop; invited Nixi to the mountain villa on the purpose of showing off her property and her close relationship with officials; kept telling tales between Nixi and Yahya, which led to the rupture between them; then attempted to dislodge Nixi from the convent after her being discarded; and finally chose to renew the cordial relationship with Nixi because she was in illicit cohabitation with her third lover Thomson, a promising government official. Besides, the younger nuns, who had been benefited from Nixi’s free ride, even felt pleased for the possibilities of Nixi5s being discarded again when they
noticed the massage of Thomson’s marriage with a British girl in a newspaper. The self-contradictory, money and power-oriented and schadenfreude images of Melanie and other nuns were like the projection of Chinese meddlesome busy-bodtes who are keen on gossiping through the streets and taking advantage of others. Such mirror-image relationship has embodied the calculating and hypocritical side of human nature.
3.2.2. The Secular People
As for the secular people，Eileen Chang had molded a variety of “ideological” images of foreigners who belonged to different classes, occupations, cultural backgrounds, and nationalities. While creating these images of exotic characters, Chang broke down the national and racial barriers by infusing her understandings of Chinese into the description of foreigners, thus created a kind of mirror-image relationship between “self ’ and “other”，and revealed the common “ugliness” of general public that surpassed nationalities.
220.127.116.11. The Citizen Stratum
Eileen Chang had confessed her creation concept in the essay Writing of One Own that she didn^ prefer to "adopt the classicist manner in which spirit and flesh, good and evil, are always posed against each other in stark conflict” or “place truthfulness and hypocrisy in direct and unequivocal contrast”（l88); instead，she intended to "utilize equivocal contrast as a means of writing the truth beneath the hypocrisy of modem people and the simplicity underneath the frivolity”(l88). In Chang’s opinion, “There are few people，after all, who are either extremely perverse or extremely enlightened... In the past several decades, people have gone on living their lives, and even their madness seems measured. So my fiction, with the exception of Cao Qiqiao in The Golden Cangue, is populated with equivocal characters. They are not heroes, but they are of the majority who actually bear the weight of the times...They lack tragedy; all they have is desolation,,(186). As a result, most of the
exotic characters in Eileen Chang’ works were not lofty “heroes” but ordinary people of citizen stratum; what they confronted with were not tragedies but desolations; and their personalities were not “extremely perverse”，but of “measured madness”. While shaping this kind of “ideological” exotic images, Chang also created a mirror-image relationship between “self’ and “other” by highlighting the group values which belong to both the Chinese and the foreign societies, and what she tries to reveal from such a relationship were more like the defects of human nature rather than radical viciousness.
In the fiction Genesis, Mrs. Greenberger, employer of the Chinese heroine Jiezhu, was depicted as the reflection of some of the selfish and calculating profiteers in Chinese society who even take advantages of their friends. When the Chinese character Mao Yaoqiu，a friend of the Greenbergers，tried to buy a present for Jiezhu from their pharmacy, Mrs. Greenberger charged him greedily for three times as much as the due price. Likely, The Chinese housemaid Ah Xiao’s foreign master Mr. Garter and one of his lovers: uthe foreign woman with blonde hair^ in the fiction Steamed Osmanthus Flower, Ah Xiao}s Unhappy Autumn, as well as Nixi^ first lover: the Indian mercer Yahya lumkin in the fiction The Consecutive Circles, were depicted the same as the stingy, suspicious and vitriolic Chinese petty bourgeois. In the conversation between Ah Xiao and Xiuqin, housemaid of Mr. Garter^ foreign lover, Xiuqin had disclosed the parsimony of her master, which was similar to that of Mr. Garter: “My mistress and your master are two of a kind. When it comes to money, they sure know how to spend up big, but they are not willing to part with a cent for everyday expenses”(68). When she had guests over and were short for chairs, unwilling to buy enough furniture, she just uasked the people across from her home if she could have a loan of some of theirs,,(69). Whaf s worse, instead of preparing enough breads for her guests, she chose to borrow a bowl of rice for them from the neighbors. According to the response of Ah Xiao, Xiuqin^ foreign master was even a bit more generous than Mr. Garter, for Garter never had people over for dinner parties, only solitary women. Mr. Garter^ parsimony and unkindness were also disclosed in his attitudes toward Ah Xiao. When Garter caught sight of the left over breads of Ah
Xiao9 s son, which were actually bought by her with a ration ticket given to her by the servant next door, he suspected that it was stolen from him. Moreover, some acts of Mr. Garter was described similar to the Chinese masters who are mean to their servants: he uwas only too anxious to have Ah Xiao flapping and pecking around his head like a tame pigeon on his return and kept ringing the bell for her until he had her running in circles,,(71) just because he had spent money to hire her. Besides, in the fiction The Consecutive Circles, the Indian mercer Yahya lumkin, a shrewd and stingy merchant who drove Nixi and their children away without giving them enough alimony, was depicted just like the irresponsible man in Chinese society. With these exotic images serving as the “mirror image” of “self’，the defects of human nature like parsimony and hypocrisy, which are commonly represented in both Chinese and western literature, were clearly disclosed by Eileen Chang in her works.
3.22.2. The Bureaucratic Stratum
In addition to those exotic images of citizen stratum, Eileen Chang had also molded several foreigners who belonged to the bureaucratic stratum. In this process, she still adhered to the preference for the ordinary majority. This kind of foreigners in her works were either petty officials with only a touch of the bureaucrat (e.g. Mr. Mill in The Consecutive Circles), or impoverished aristocrats(e.g. the Indian Princess Saheiyini). Through the creation of these images of “other”，Chang also formed a kind of mirror-image relationship between “self ’ and “other” and revealed the common “ugliness” of human nature shared by “self’ and “other”，like arrogance, unfaithfulness, hypocrisy, etc.
For example, in the fiction The Consecutive Circles, the exotic character Mr. Mill, as a British officer in Hong Kong colony, was an arrogant man who always raised his jaw too high like the Chinese officials who held power, and held an unfaithful, flirtatious, and irresponsible attitude toward marriage and love like a variety of ordinary Chinese men did. As a married man, he flirted actively with the Chinese heroine Nixi behind his wife’s back. In Chang’s description, when Nixi
joined the party held in Mr. MilPs house, uMr. Mill extended his arm around her waist and kept pinching her ...She hid her hand under the edge of her coat, and his hand followed. He put one hand on her left side of the sofa and the other into the crevice on the right side, in order to clasp her between his arms .. .with his drunken face bending over hers,,(283). Such flirtatious and skillful behavior implies that Mr. Mill is most likely a recidivist of extramarital affair and a veteran flirt like the Chinese sordid and lascivious bureaucrats who share some power and privileges, and abused the privileges to seduce and forcibly occupy women. In the fiction, after the heroine Nixi was abandoned by her first lover Yahya, Mill encountered her once again in the convent. “Driven by the former ‘affection’ between them, he exploited tricks of a 'romance creditor9 to tame her. However, after hearing that she was thrown out of Yahya^ home with nothing but two children to raise...he immediately broke off all ties with her”(296). Through such illustration of Mill’s ironic changing attitudes, Eileen Chang had also revealed the irresponsible, selfish and hypocritical defects of human nature shared by the Chinese and the foreigners.
As for Saheiyini, an impoverished Indian princess in the fiction Love in a Fallen City, she is also portrayed by Eileen Chang as a “mirror image” of “self ’ with the common ugliness of human nature like arrogance, snobbishness and hypocrisy. When the heroine Bai Liusu first made acquaintance with her, she had claimed publicly that she was the daughter of Prince Krishna Karumpa and always put on an air of superiority and arrogance like the privileged class in old Chinese society. The moment she come into Liusu5s sight, she was escorted imposingly with many attendants crowding round: "Directly in their path a group of western gentlemen stood clustered around a woman, like stars around the moon.” “Liusu looked at the women, and the hauteur with which the woman returned her gaze put a thousand miles between them,,(136). And she just greeted Liusun chillily by "reaching out and touching her hand with her fmgertip’’(137). With such depiction of arrogant temperament and manner, Eileen Chang had endowed the same undesirable defects of the Chinese old aristocrats on the character Saheiyini. In addition to the arrogance toward people of inferior social status, Saheiyini also showed contempt and
discrimination in her style of conversation. She gave Liusu a rather satirical comment: ‘‘she doesn’t seem like someone from Shanghai’’( 137) with the innuendo that scorned her as “a country bumpkin” who was coarse and outdated. However, ironically，after the fall of Hong Kong in the Pacific war, this self-proclaimed princess changed her attitude thoroughly in a humble and flattering way for the Englishman who used to be her ‘‘sugar daddy” had been interned. When the hero and the heroine Fan Liuyuan and Liusu came across her again, uher complexion was sallow... she was dressed in a long black cotton gown she had picked up god knows where”( 165) and she even hadn’t eaten a full meal for a long time. In such impoverished and awkward situation, her arrogant and freezing greetings had hypocritically changed into active and passionate ones. uShe shook their hands warmly, ask where they were living, and wanted very much to come and see their new house,,(165). When Liusu invited her to go home with them, she was very delighted to go for a free meal, but after noticing that their meals were also skimpy, she never came to their house again. The exotic image of Saheiyini, with hypocritical and snobbish behaviors, was familiar to the Chinese readers, for they could easily find people flattering the superiors while suppressing or showing no respect to the inferiors in the Chinese society. From another perspective, Princess Saheiyini，as the “mirror image” of‘‘self’，was introduced to readers with the common ugliness of human nature that may exist in people of almost all races and cultural backgrounds.
4. Significance of Eileen Changes Creation of Exotic Images
As is illustrated in the former chapters, with the influence of Chinese complex “Imaginaire Social” of the western world as well as Eileen Chang’s unique growth environment of both western and Chinese cultural backgrounds, the exotic images created by Chang are complicated and multifaceted. The exotic images molded with “mania” and “hatred” serve as foils to the image of “self ’ and reveal the unique “ugliness” of China and the exotic world. In addition，most of the exotic images in her works belong to the ’’ideological” type. They serve as a mirror to the image of ‘‘self ’ and reflect the common ugliness in human nature. Such representation of complicated exotic images has its unique significance on both Eileen Change literary creation and modern Chinese literature.
4.1. Significance on Eileen Changes Literary Creation
As is known to readers, “contrast” is one of the most distinctive writing techniques in Eileen Chang’s literary works. In Chang’s self-evaluation of her writing style，she had expressed her unique opinion of “contrast”： “I like tragedy, and even batter desolation... Tragedy resembles the matching of bright red with deep green: an intense and unequivocal contrast. And it is more exciting than truly revelatory. The reason desolation resonates far more profoundly is that it resembles the conjunction of scallion green with peach red，creating an equivocal contrast”(Chang，“Writing of One’s Own” 17). It is shown in such narration that while doing literary creation, Chang preferred to adopt the technique of “equivocal contrast”，which usually manifests as the conjunction of scallion green with peach red rather than the intense contrast between black and white, and usually creates an atmosphere of desolation rather than tragedy. To some degree, Eileen Change representation of exotic images has extended her writing pattern of “equivocal contrast”. Compared with the single depiction of domestic images, the presence of exotic characters provides Change works with a typical pair of binary oppositions: “native and foreign”，in other words, “self and other”. While shaping these images，Chang had also combined another pair of binary oppositions: ‘‘male and female”. As a result，the contrasts between images of the same nationality and different genders, between images of different nationalities and the same gender, and between images of different nationalities and different genders coexist in her works and make her use of “contrast” become more prominent. To be more precise，these contrasts are not intense contrasts but “equivocal” ones, because the exotic image(“other”）and the domestic image(‘‘self’）in Chang’s works are not separated or isolated opposites. They share a kind of mirror-image relationship and set off each other. As is stated above，Eileen Chang’s representation of the exotic image is correlated to the image of uself Chang had highlighted the unique feature of “other” (foreigners) through the view point and attitude of uself? (Chinese characters). In accordance, her creation of exotic images serves as a foil to the image of uself9 and makes the traits of Chinese Characters more remarkable. While shaping the ’’ideological’’ exotic images，she also weakened the concept of “other” by projecting Chinese group values on the foreign people. Therefore, Eileen Change representation of exotic images can be treated as part and parcel of her unique writing pattern of “equivocal contrast”.
In addition, Eileen Change representation of exotic images also contributes to the better formation of the aesthetic view of ugliness in her literary works. Compared with the single depiction of domestic images, the mutual contrast between exotic and native images makes their unique ugliness more prominent, while the mirror-image relationship between “self ’ and “other” ensures a clearer revelation of the common ugliness of human nature. The inextricably linked depiction of‘‘self’(domestic images) and uother,5(exotic images) has restored the complex and absurd old Chinese society where East met West; old thoughts and new ideas collided; feudalism, colonialism, imperialism and the shadow of war gathered overhead like dark clouds; the domestic characters and various foreigners, possessed by the old feudal ghosts or disguised with the clothing of modern civilization, made their entry on the stage, kept showing readers their unique ugliness and the common ugliness of human nature.
4.2. Significance on Modern Chinese Literature
Since the Opium War, China5 s state of seclusion had changed, which provided Chinese intellectuals with the opportunities to obtain more awareness of the exotic cultures and foreign people by studying abroad, making acquaintance with foreigners in China or reading books about the exotic world. As a result, more and more exotic images started to show up in modern Chinese literary works, such as Records and Maps of the World (written by Wei Yuan), The Oversea Zhuzhi Poems in Qing Dynasty, Revenge, a Novel Collection of Ba Jin, Bing Xin^ short story Photo, Lao She^ two fictions: Mr. Ma & Son: a Sojourn in London and Four Generations Under One Roof. In the literary works, especially those fictional ones which were written by writers of earlier age, "there were few round and successfully molded exotic figures, and writers seemed to have little interests in writing about them,5? because ^strong national sentiments made it difficult for writers to observe and understand foreign countries with a normal attitude, to go deeper into the exotic social life, and to feel and experience the subtle differences between eastern and western cultures,,(Wang,
The exotic images appeared in the literary works which were written before and within Eileen Change time can be classified into two categories. In the first category, writers usually focused on the differences between the exotic images and the native Chinese. These exotic images were either created by writers with admiration and “mania” as the embodiment of the progressive ideas and thoughts as well as the advanced science and technology of the west, or molded as the threat to China by writers with the feeling of fear and “hatred”. Some writers adopted an amicable attitude in their writings by describing both the admirable merits and the undesirable defects of the exotic characters (e.g. the British images in Lao She^ fiction Ma & Son: a Sojourn in London). When it comes to the second category, writers usually projected the Chinese group values on foreign people, thus created exotic images with sinicized characteristics (e.g. Mr. Fuping in Four Generations Under One Roof). These exotic characters, although were molded with some Chinese characteristics, still share essential difference with the native Chinese. In the two categories, writers9 purpose of creating those exotic images (apart from the special intentions resulted from the creation psychology and motive of individual writers), is more intended to reveal and reflect the unique nationalities of “self ’（native Chinese) and “other” (foreigners), than to reveal the human nature that shared by people of different nationalities and culture backgrounds.
Compared with the exotic images discussed above, Eileen Chang’s representation of exotic images has significantly enriched the system of exotic images in modern Chinese literature with her insight into the human nature that transcends national borders, and her depiction of marginalized exotic groups (e.g. the mixed-bloods) which were neglected by most of the writers at that time. As is stated in the second chapter, different from other Chinese writers who grew up in the background of rural and indigenous culture, Eileen Chang were brought up with the influence of both Chinese and western cultures, so she had already become accustomed to the foreigners and foreign cultural images around. To some extent, she had lost the original curiosity toward exotic elements. Moreover, Chang also had the awareness of the stereotype of both Chinese and westerners in western and Chinese literatures, and had shown such awareness in the process of writing: she not only expressed her preference of Ma & Son: a Sojourn in London, a Chinese writer^ novel concerned with the image of Britain, in her essay Whispers, but also deliberately designed the beginning of her fiction Aloeswood Incense: The Second Brazier (a fiction that denied some of the Chinese stereotypes of western girls) with the description of the narrator “I” reading the records of Lord George Macartney’s diplomatic visit to China in Qing dynasty. With such awareness, Eileen Chang freed herself from the biases to the exotic world. While creating the uideological,5 exotic images, she merged the image of “other” with the image of “self ’ by infusing her understanding of Chinese into the direct description of foreigners. In this way, such kind of images reveal the human nature that goes beyond nationalities and play a unique part in the system of exotic images in modern Chinese literature.
As is stated in the former chapters, influenced by Chinese complex “Imaginaire Social” of the western world and Eileen Chang’s intermingled feelings toward western people deriving from her unique growth environment of both Chinese and western cultures, together with the discrimination from western colonists and the living predicament of the colonized that Chang had experienced when she stayed in Hang Kong, the exotic images created by Eileen Chang are complex and multifaceted. In her literary works, these images can be categorized into three types: exotic images created with “mania”，exotic images created with “hatred” and the "ideological” exotic images. As the images of “other”，they share special relationship with the image of “self’： firstly, the exotic images created with “mania” and “hatred” are in contrast to the image of “self’. The contrasts between “self’ and exotic images created with “hatred” show westerner’s racial discrimination and the bondage of religion asceticism in the western society; while the contrasts between “self’ and exotic images created with “mania” reflect the alienation of human beings caused by the gloomy social environment in the old Chinese society where colonialism and feudalism coexisted. Secondly，the “ideological” exotic images serve as a mirror to the image of “self’• This mirror-image relationship revealed the common ugliness of the human nature discussed in both Chinese and western literature, (such as selfishness, hypocrisy, unfaithfulness, etc.) Eileen Chang’s representation of complicated exotic images has unique significance on both her literary writing and the history of Chinese literature. It extends her writing pattern of “equivocal contrast”， contributes to the better formation of the ugly aesthetics in her literary works, and enriches the system of exotic images in modern Chinese literature.
Through the illustrations and analyses above, this thesis may enrich the previous studies of Eileen Chang. Since the 1980s, there has been an increasing number of research on Eileen Chang in China and overseas. However, few scholars have participated in the research of the exotic images in her works. This thesis combines the Imagology study of exotic images with the study of ugly aesthetics (another research field of Eileen Chang’s works that hasn’t gained due attention). It tries to expand the depth of exotic image research from the perspective of ugly aesthetics, and explore new ideas of ugly aesthetics through Imagology study. Besides, the study of exotic images in Chinese literature can be regarded as an exploration of the domestic Imagology research in Comparative Literature. Domestic Imagology studies have long been concerned with the Chinese images in western literature and haven’t paid due attention to the exotic images in Chinese literature. However, with the advantage of language and cultural background, Chinese scholars are possible to make more progress in the Imagology studies in domestic literature; and such acts are also beneficial to the indigenization of Imagology study. Whafs more, the study of exotic images in Chinese literature may help to realize better comprehension of the relationship between China and the exotic world as well as facilitate effective communication between China and the foreign countries. In addition, there are still imperfections in this thesis. Several fictions and essays quoted here haven’t been translated into English; as a result, the author of this thesis had to translate the quotations and didn’t managed to restore the original charm of Eileen Chang’s writings. Moreover, due to word limit and the arrangement of passage structure, the marginalized exotic groups like the mixed-bloods, as the typical exotic group images in Eileen Change works, were not systematically analyzed, and still need discussions in the future.
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